1. Have you ever changed a strongly held attitude? What caused the change for you?

1.Have you ever changed a strongly held attitude? What caused thechange for you?

WhenI was growing up, I strongly believed that if I answered examquestions using a blue pen, I would get low marks as compared to whenI used a black pen. As a result, I developed a negative attitudetowards blue pens and stopped using them at all. One day, we weresitting for an exam on my favorite subject. It turned I did not havea black pen, so I had to use a blue one. When the results werepublished, I was the best in the class. It is then that I changed thenegative attitude I had towards blue pens. They are my favorite fromthen till now.

2.Have you ever done something in a group that you would not have doneif you were alone? What happened? How did you feel? What have youlearned from this chapter that might help you avoid this behavior inthe future?

WhenI was in high school, my associates and I sneaked from ourdormitories at night to attend a party in the neighborhood.Unfortunately, the teacher on duty noticed we were missing fromschool and noted down our names. The next day we were all suspendedfrom school for two weeks. I felt disappointed in myself for lettingmy parents down considering how hard they were working to get methrough school. In this chapter, I have learned that at times it isbest to make decisions as an individual even when in a group sincethe consequences of the group’s actions affect every member of thegroup as an individual.

3.How do Milgram’s results particularly the finding that theremoteness of the victim affected obedience relate to some aspects ofmodern warfare?

Accordingto Milgram’s results, several factors are responsible forinfluencing obedience. These include the remoteness of the victim,imitation of others and close relationship with authoritative power.The remoteness of the victim influences the actions of people who arenot in touch with the victims of their actions. In modern warfare, itis possible for a nation, for example, the United States to bombanother nation without taking soldiers there by using drones.Americans support these attacks since they are not close to thevictims on the ground. If they were able to see how the attacksaffected the people in the target nations, then they would not findit so effortless to continue with such attacks.

4.What are some of the similarities between Zimbardo’s prison studyand the abuses at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq?

Theguards in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq wanted minimum relations withtheir inmates. They even reduced the number of roll calls from twoper day to just twice every week. Zimbardo’s prison study evaluatedhow prison staff, mostly the guards treated the inmates under theircare. Zimbardo mentions some occasions at Stanford where the guardsin his studies volunteered to remain on duty for extras withoutasking for extra pay or raising any complaints. Other similaritiesbetween Zimbardo’s study and the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq includegiving humiliating tasks to prisoners and denying them basicprivileges such as food and sleep.

5.Do you believe that you are free of prejudice? After reading thischapter, which of the many factors that cause prejudice do you thinkis most important to change?

Prejudiceis a premeditated judgment or point of view about something orsomeone that is ignorant of the actual situation. I am not free ofprejudice. Like almost everyone else, I have predefined opinionsabout people or events even before I encounter them and see thereality for what it is. I think ignorance is the most importantaspect of changing when dealing with prejudice. Eliminating ignorancewill enable an individual to know the truth about other people and,therefore, refrain from making misguided personal judgments aboutthem. 6.Can you think of situations when the egoistic model of altruism seemsmost likely correct? What about the empathy-altruism hypothesis?

Egoisticaltruism is appropriate in situations where the desires andaspirations of an individual are all geared towards benefitting them.At times, situations may arise that require one to choose betweenhelping themselves and helping others, and they chose to helpthemselves, that is the egoistic altruism in play. Theempathy-altruism hypothesis, on the other hand, prevails insituations where one feels pity towards other people and chose tohelp them even if they do not stand to benefit in any way.


Carpenter,S., &amp Huffman, K. (2010). Visualizingpsychology.New York: Wiley in collaboration with the National GeographicSociety.