TheTale of Two Brothers
Oneof the ancient Egyptian stories is the “Tale of Two Brothers,”which was previously preserved on the Papyrus D’Orbiney, andcurrently in the British Museum. The tale was written during KingSeti II reign (1209-1205 B.C) in the 19thcentury in Egypt. The tale tells of two brothers Anpu and Bata. Anpuwas the eldest while Bats was the youngest. Although Anpu wasmarried, he still considered his brother as one of his sons. Bata wasa hardworking man. He worked along with his brother in the fieldwhere they herded the cows, as well as plowed and reaped. The two hada good brotherly relationship until one day when Anpu wife tried toseduce Bata. It happened when Bata had gone home to collect somemore seeds. However, when Bata failed to fall into Anpu wife trap,the wife twisted the story and accused Bata of beating her. She madesome marked on her arms and legs that she would use as evidence. Shealso pretended to be in much pain. Anpu very angry and he tried tokill Bata by springing him a knife. Bata run away and he prayed tothe god Re-Harakhiti to save him. Re answered his prayer and hecreated a river of crocodiles to separate the two brothers. Later,Bata protested his innocence and proved he was not guilty until heconvinced Anpu. When he got home, Anpu found his wife washing theblack paint on her skin and he kills her. Eventually, the twobrothers reconciled and they ruled Egypt for the next thirty years.Sharing of the throne was a clear evident that filial relationshipswere important to the Egyptians.
Thestory has climax points that give it a fairly tale like quality. Theclimax occurred when Anpu almost killed his brother before knowingabout his wife’s evil deed. The other climax point is when Anpufound his wife washing away the paint on his skin and kills her.Further, the story also has a denouement hence, a fairly tale(Wilkinson105).This was when Anpu realized his mistake, as well as when Bata foundpeace in the Acacia Valley. The story represents an agriculturalperiod in the Egyptian history. The two brothers were farmers theyherded cows, plowed and reaped.
Defineand discuss the significance
Ahmosewas a pharaoh of the ancient Egypt. He was the son of PharaohSeqenenre Tao and he succeeded his brother of King Kamose, thepharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty. He was also the founder of theeighteenth dynasty. Ahmose played a significance role in making theEgypt history. He was a great warrior, and he managed to finalize awar that his father had initiated. Besides, he restored Theban rule,reasserted Egyptian power, begun massive constructions, and reopenedtrade, quarries, and trade routes.
Seshatwas an Egyptian royal goddess of measurement and writing. Inaddition, she was a patron of architecture, mathematics, and recordkeeping. She played an essential role in setting the dimension of thetemple. She calculated the king’s earthly days, and she recordedthem on a notched palm branch. She also wrote the king’s name on“tree of life” leaves (Wilkinson78).
Hatshepsutwas a daughter of King Thutmose I and the queen of Egypt in theEighteenth dynasty. She expanded Egyptian trade expedition. As aresult, she brought back vast riches such as ebony, ivory, leopardskins, gold, and incense. In addition, she oversaw building projectssuch as the construction of Deir el-Bahri Temple, which is her mainachievement.
Thepunt was a small boat with a square-cut bow and a flat bottom used byancient Egyptians. Due to its small size, the boats were only used insmall rivers. In the ancient Egypt, punt played a significant role ofshipping cargo from one point to another.
Amarnaperiod occurred during the era of Akhenaten in the Eighteenth dynastyin the Egyptian history. Its main significance was marking of“Horizon of the Aten.” This was when the royal residence shiftedto Akhetaten, now known as Amarna.
Nefertitiwas an Egyptian queen and king Akhenaten’s wife. Together with herhusband, the two were devoted to religious revolution. They worshipedonly one god, and they created a new religion that changed otherreligions ways all over Egypt. She played a considerable role increating the cult of Aten, as well as promoting an artwork. Accordingto Wilkinson(50),Nefertiti legacy of power and beauty continues to intrigue up todate.
Horemhebwas the last pharaoh of the Egyptian’s eighteenth dynasty. Some ofhis achievements include restoring the priesthood of Amun, reopeningof old temples, and splitting up the army into southern and northerncommand. Horemheb was also a commander in chief before he became apharaoh.
QueenTaworsetwas the last pharaoh of the Egyptian’s nineteenth dynasty.Unfortunately, her reign ended in civil war. However, it is not knownwhether Taworset died peacefully or Setnakhte overthrew her. As aking wife, she played an important role in helping him with his dailyactivities.
Battle of Kadesh
Thebattle of Kadesh occurred during the reign of Muwatalii II andRamesse II of the Hittite and Egyptian Empires respectively. Thebattle happened in the city of Kadesh, currently known as Syria. Thisbattle was marked as the as the first battle with a survivingtactical records of a battle. In addition, the battle led to peacetreaties negotiation.
RamseIII was the second king in the Egyptian twentieth dynasty. Hisgreatest significance happened when he defended his people againstinvaders in three different great wars. In addition, he defended hiscountry against Libyans and sea people during his reign.
Identifyand Discuss (Pictures)
Thefirst image represents the statue of Akhenaten, who was an Egyptianpharaoh during the eighteenth dynasty. The statue signifies theliving spirit of Aten. In addition, the sculptor depicts a young kingbefore changing his name to Akhenaten and moving to Amarna (Wilkinson47). The second image represents the statue of Hatshepsut, who wasamong the most successful female rulers in Egypt. This statuesignifies the Egyptian pharaoh’s ceremonial attire. Despitedisplayed masculine attire, the statue also displays feminine air.Additionally, the statue signifies the subject of prime life, whichis eternally young, healthy, and strong.
Thethird image represents the Colannaded design of Hatshepsut temple.Hatshepsut temple was the most elegant temple in the entire ancientEgypt. According to Wilkinson(20),the main significance of Hatshepsut temple was to commemorate theachievement of Queen Hatshepsut, as well as serve as her funerarytemple. In addition, the temple was used as God’s sanctuary. Thefourth picture represents the sculptor of Thutmose, the bust ofNefertiti. This statue was normally displayed at the Neues Museum.The statue was also referred as Thutmosis or Djhutmose. According toWilkinson(25),the Thutmose sculptor signified the official court sculptor ofAkhenaten, as well as the beauty of a woman.
Thefifth picture represents the valley of the queens. This imagesignifies the place in Egypt where Pharaoh buried their wives in theancient times. The valley of the queens was also referred asTa-set-Neferu, which means “the place of beauty” or “Seat ofbeauty.” Additionally, this image signifies the tomb of Nefetari(Wilkinson56).The sixth picture represents two of the seated statues of Abu Simbel,the Temples of Ramesses. Abu Simbel was among the most recognizedEgypt’s ancient site. The statue depicts the Ramesses II. The mainsignificance of statue is to represent the Ramesses II, who wassometimes referred as “the great.” Ramesses II was a warrior kingwho expanded his territory far to the Levant during his era. Inaddition, Ramesses II also battled Hittites Empire during the Battleof Qadesh.
Hyksoshave an essential influence on the Egyptian history. Hyksos is agroup of people who played a significant role of mounding ancientEgypt to the country it is today. They belonged to a mixedSemitic-Asiatic group, also known as “shepherd kings” and theyimmigrated into Egypt during the 18thcentury. Although they were foreigners, they took over the Egypt, andthey started reigning as rulers. Eventually, they became so powerfuland ended up reigning for three consecutive dynasties that is, 15th,16th,and 17thcenturies. According to Wilkinson and Jones, Hyksos were a redeemingfactor in Egypt (Wilkinson102).However, ancient Egyptians thought otherwise. Correspondingly, themodern Egyptians do not as well acknowledge that Hyksos played avital role in Egypt civilization. Nonetheless, the deeds of Hyksosare still evident that they made Egypt succeed. Wilkinson and Jonesbelieve in the Hyksos innovative leadership during their term. Duringthe reign, Hyksos registered two primary innovations that facilitatedtransport revolution and agricultural revolution. For instance, theyintroduced chariot and horse as the major transportation mediumacross the land. The horse and the chariots also improved themilitaries activities.
Theyalso introduced farming equipment, which facilitated the agriculturalrevolution in Egypt. Up to date, agriculture is the backbone of Egypteconomy. Besides, Hyksos were proficient artisans and builders. Thisgroup of foreign rulers introduced irrigation system, shadoofirrigation, to boost up agricultural production. The shadoofcomprised of wooden tools with a weight on one side and a woodenbucket on the other side. Shadoof helped Egyptians to raise waterabove the river Nile level, as well as divert it into canals.Ultimately, ancient Egyptians started producing two crops annuallyrather than one. This also led to the introduction of new vegetablesand fruits.
Further,Hyksos created an opportunity of marine activities by introducing seamode of transport such as the use of ships and boats that integrateda keel. Since kneels were flat, they made it easier for the ship andboat to move swiftly and be stable. As a result, the ancientEgyptians increased trade within Mediterranean island hence,boosting the economy.
Otherlegacy associated with Hyksos includes the introduction of improvedpotter wheels hence, flourishing pottery business (Wilkinson89).Also, Hyksos developed vertical loom in consequence, improving thetextile industry. Eventually, the Hyksos rule resulted in an era ofpeace and prosperity. Previously, Egyptians were isolated from therest of the world, its technological and cultural growth werestagnant. Luckily, Hyksos intervention broke this tradition. Despitethe fact that they were foreign invaders, their innovationcontribution to Egyptian warfare and technology created a way for theNew Kingdom, that until to date, it is regarded as the ancientEgypt’s golden age.
Anothergreat legacy that Hyksos left behind is the active preservation ofdocuments. The fifth Hyksos king, King Apophis, authorized thescribes to recopy Egyptians texts, as well as preserve them for thefuture purposes. The king himself preserved documents such as theWestcar Papyrus, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, and the RhindMathematical Papyrus.
Unlikeother women in the ancient civilization, an ancient Egypt womanenjoyed equal economic and legal right as an Egyptian man. Indeed, anancient Egyptian woman enjoyed many rights than any other womanelsewhere in the world. An Egyptian woman enjoyed many such rightsbecause, in one way of the other, they had a relation to the king andthe queen. In addition, the religious system of the God privilegedwomen to have more rights. Firstly, an Egyptian woman had enjoyedlegal rights. An Egyptian woman had a right to own, manage, anddispose of private property (Wilkinson102).This included portable goods, land, slaves, servants, livestock, andmoney. She would manage her property independently, without a manintervention and according to her free will. Similar to their malecounterparts, Egyptian women appeared as a contracting partner eitherin a marriage or divorce contract, purchase of property, engagementof wet-nurses, and arrangement for self-enslavement. Besides, anEgyptian woman has a right to free a slave, execute a testament, aswell as make adoptions. An Egyptian law was not gender-biased, and awoman had a right to bring a lawsuit against offenders in an opencourt. They also had access to legal documents such as land titledeeds, birth and death certificate, marriage and divorcecertificates.
Secondly,an Egyptian woman enjoyed property rights. An ancient Egyptian womancould attain possessions and real property through several ways. Forinstance, she would receive inheritance and gifts from her parents orhusband, or someone else, or she would purchase with her earnedmoney. Wilkinson(102) states that Egyptian women had a right to claim up to one-thirdof the community property after a divorce or the death of herhusband. Under the Egyptian property law, an Egyptian woman had aright to purchase private property, which apparently remained hers inthe case of a divorce.
Anancient Egyptian woman played an important role in the society. Forthe upper and middle class, women took care of their home andfamilies. The customary law entitled women to play the role ofmothers and children bearers. Hapshepsut is a good example of a womanwho was a royal wife and a mother to a king. Secondly, Egyptian womenplayed the role of professional mourners, musicians, and dancers.Further, some women played the professional role whereby some werebrewers and hairdressers. Women also functioned as leaders, forinstance, dowager queens and regents. They were also national heroes.For instance, Hatshepsut reign was prosperous. During her reign, shesuccessful in warfare and she had a peaceful era. She brought greatwealth to her nation, as well as established the internationaltrading relationship. Besides, women also played a significant rolein the religious matters. For instance, Akhenaten convinced Egyptianthat Aten was the only God. There was also female goddess such asIsis, Hathor, and Ma’at. Several images are evidence of the rolethat women played in the Ancient Egypt.
Wilkinson,Toby A. H. TheRise and Fall of Ancient Egypt: The History of Civilization from 3000Bc to Cleopatra.London: Bloomsbury, 2010. Print.