Towardsthe nursing process, assessment is the first step. Assessmentincludes processes of collection, organization, verification,interpretation, and data documentation to be used by the healthcareprofessionals. The main purpose of assessment is for theestablishment of database, which concerns the clients’psychosocial, physical, and emotional health (Watson & Watson,2012). This is to ensure health identification is directed towardspromoting behaviors, and at the same time, the potential and actualhealth care problems. The presence of varied assessment tools aredirected towards various issues in nursing.
TheJean Watson’s Theory of Caring incorporates human caring with theseassessment tools, and by this, the nurses are able to integrate theconcept of the mind-body-spirit. This is aimed at delivering superiorhealth care for the clients (Shihab, 2009). The paper therefore, isaimed at reviewing four assessment tools namely DysfunctionalAttitude Scale, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, FamilyAdaptability and Cohesion Scale IV, and Schoolagers Coping StrategiesInventory. Based on these tools, data about each one of them will bediscussed, which will include the type of population useful for,length, the cost, ease of use, validity, and how each of the fourtools would enhance assessment analysis phase of the entire nursingprocess.
JeanWatson began by first highlighting the difference between nursing andmedicine through a state that said, “curing is the main domain ofmedicine caring is the main domain of nursing” (Sitzman &Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014). She proposed ten curativefactors, which involved creating a humanistic, idealistic altruismsystems instilling hope-faith sensitive cultivation to anindividual’s self into others establishing trust in relationshipsexpressing negative and positive feelings using scientificproblem-solving decision-making methods creating an environment thatsupports, corrects, protects mental, socio-cultural, physical, andspiritual aspects helping with the gratification of human demands,and allowing forces of existential-phenomenology. Jean Watson’sTheory of Caring was developed over a six-year span, 1979-1985.
Tobegin with, clinically depressed individuals experience feelings ofextreme hopelessness and sadness throughout the week on end. A lot oftime is characterized by a loss of interest in some of the activitiesthat were initially enjoyed, and there have challenges with sleep andfood. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) represent a self-reporttool used to assess attitudes that are associated with symptoms ofdepression. Individuals suffering from these symptoms of depressionare identified as a vulnerable population, which affects thedisparity in the promotion of their health (Puchalski & Ferrell,2010). Jean Watson, in her theory of caring, identifies such ascenario to be of focus on the authenticity of caring about theaffected patients. Watson believes in the evolvement of theever-changing nursing practices, and at the same time, the dynamicsof the human phenomena.
TheDysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) is an assessment tool that isaimed at assessing the cognitive vulnerability of the population.Cognitive vulnerability is reflected in Watson’s theory of caringthrough present, conscious, attentive, and intentional suggestionreflected towards human care and vulnerability (Puchalski &Ferrell, 2010). Nursing is centered on the DAS assessment tool, andrevolves around creating and achieving a higher sense of harmony onthe kind of population that seeks cognitive behavior intervention aspart of the assessment tool to treat clinical vulnerability anddepression. In addition, Shihab (2009) observed that the centralelement, which differentiates the cognitive-behavioral aspect of apsychotherapeutic approach, which conceptualizes mental problems. DASassessment tool provides a framework that understands the manner inwhich obese adolescent in the vulnerable population are developed andsolved.
TheHealth-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP II) is a tool widely usedto identify and measure the health-promoting in clinical disorder andhealthy population groups. The promotion of a healthy populationfirst goes back to the vulnerable and obese adolescence. Forinstance, the Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring emphasizes on anever-changing nursing practices that goes with human phenomenadynamics. Today’s practices in nursing aimed at solving theproblems of vulnerable obese population is greatly influenced by theJean Watson’s theory of Caring, which dictates a specific guide tocare. Watson & Watson (2012) noted that an application of thetheory not only allows the nurses to give better care as a whole forpatients, but it also allows nurses to care for themselves.
TheHealth-promoting lifestyle profile II assessment tool emphasizes onfollowing the Jean Watson’s curative factors. Here, nurses are ableto assess the patient through emphasis on better lifestyle. For theobese adolescence for example, their healthy lifestyle are impactedby poor eating habits. Regular healthy behaviors are emphasized, andconsist of stress management and regular exercise. TheHealth-promoting lifestyle profile II is a reliable tool thatmeasures healthy lifestyle, and is therefore essential with betterunderstanding of healthy promotion.
TheFamily Adaptability and Cohesion Scale IV is an assessment tooldeveloped for the evaluation of the cohesion and adaptabilitydimensions in a family interaction (Watson & Watson, 2012). Thetool is comprised of 6 scales in a family – 2 balanced and 4unbalanced – each of 7 items. It whole package include the FamilySatisfaction Scale and Family Communication Scale. Jenna Riley beingthe subject matter, relevance of this assessment tool is drawn fromwhat the Jean Watson’s Theory would regard it as a reliability andvalidity of concurrent levels. These levels are drawn from the FACESIV package with it ratios scoring a balanced measure of cohesion andflexibility given by a clinical example.
Aclinical example drawn from the FACES IV scores helps to assessdynamics of families, treatment plan, and the determination of theimpact provided for family therapy. Based on Jean Watsons Theory,family dynamics towards vulnerable population for instance is basedon the caritas factors such as the promotion of trust, faith, hope,selflessness, and spiritual energy (Sitzman & Watson CaringScience Institute, 2014). In addition, the vulnerable population inquestion would be based on the nurses finding it from withinthemselves to reflect and explore before offering optimal healthcare. The FACES IV scores also recognize an anticipated duty aimed atconnecting with family dynamics towards better nursing care.
TheSchoolagers Coping Strategies Inventory is an assessment tool, whichis used to measure the effectiveness and frequency stress-copingstrategies in patients. The vulnerable population of an obeseadolescence suffers from health-related stress (Shihab, 2009). Thetool borrows a lot from Jean Watson’s Theory where explanations onstress are based on core beliefs and depressive schemas, whichrepresent a cognitive vulnerability, and there activates negativethoughts as a result of stress.
Watsonemphasizes on a caring moment whereby the nurse for instanceexercises positive thoughts to vulnerable population about theirsituation. Not necessarily the main goal, the theory insists on thenurse about creating awareness and an authentic presence throughcaring moments (Puchalski & Ferrell, 2010). This assessment toolis a one-factor instrument, but offers a literature that copingfocuses mainly on the coping styles rather than strategic coping.
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