Hastygeneralizationis a situation whereby a conclusion is made from limited evidence(Almossawi and Alejandro 27). For instance, someone may say that thefive parliamentary representatives have had affairs therefore, allparliamentary members are adulterers. Another person may say that agroup of political leaders blocked some villagers from receivingrelief food therefore, all politicians are radical and they take lawin their hands. In the above examples, conclusions are hasty andbased on limited evidence.
Falsecauseis a fallacy that results from an argument that tends to make anevent as the cause of the other event just because it occurred soonafter. For example it is clear that the hair grows before the teethin babies thus it is most likely the hair causes the growth of teeth.
Invalidanalogyoccurs when two ideas, objects or items are compared and they seem tohave similar characteristics but in the real sense they are theydiffer in the area of comparison(Almossawiand Alejandro 19). For instance, people who cannot go a day without acup of tea are similar to alcoholics. In this case, people who liketea are compared to alcoholics but in the real sense, they aredifferent.
Bandwagonis a form of technique meant to persuade people that something iscorrect. Since many people are persuaded, thus everyone believes itis the correct thing for example, Frank is the best youth leader andeveryone is voting for him so obviously he is the best. In this case,everyone conforms to the will of others and follows what they aredoing.
Redherringis an introduction of an irrelevant issue to distract an argument.For example, a woman is caught stealing vegetables when asked why sheis doing so she says ‘I know it is not right but I am doing itbecause of the children they will die of hunger’. She diverts theanswer about her children to gain sympathy and confuse the one who isasking her.
AdHominem inLatin is known as ‘against man’. It is a fallacy or an argumentwith poor interpretation and judgment that is not suitable. AccordingtoDamer,name-callingis one of the direct ad hominem (Damer 58). For example, when anargument is at its peak there is direct insult to the personinvolved, calling names, and insulting his or her character.
Either/Oris a kind of fallacy in which in an argument there are only tosolutions to a complex problem , one which is correct and the otherone incorrect. For example, a politician says that the governmentshould allow the citizen to carry guns, if not, it is the criminalsalone who will hold the guns and they will rule the country. In thestatement, there are only two potential options for two possibleoutcomes, either there is right for citizens to be armed or thecriminals to rule the country.
Slipperyslopeis a fallacy that claims in an event of one thing happening, itresults to a number of outcomes. For example, the hens cannot go outof the closet if they go they will roam the garden, if they roamthey will destroy the growing vegetables so they can only remain inthe closet. One thing results in another and so forth.
Appealto traditionis a fallacy that occurs when there is an assumption that one thingis better than the other is simply because it is older or traditional(Walton22).For instance, this type of government has been there for over 20years so it must be the best.
Appealto noveltyis a situation in which a person impulsively claims that something isbetter merely because it is new and modern. For example, when aperson upgrades his or her machines to the newest versions then theybecome more reliable.
Almossawi,Ali and Alejandro, Giraldo. AnIllustrated Book of Bad Arguments.Brunswick, Melbourne, Vic. Scribe Publications, 2014. Print.
Damer,T E. AttackingFaulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments.Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Walton,Douglas. ArgumentationSchemes for Presumptive Reasoning.New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.