Participantobservation refers to a situation where the observer is involveddirectly in activities with the people being recorded. The observerenters a social system, example when you live in a community to studythem and you are involved in their daily activities. On the otherhand nonparticipant, the observer has no direct contact with thegroup under study the observer considers the group from a distanteither through video or direct observation.

Disguisedobservation, occurs when an observer studies group behavior or socialactivities without their knowledge, example when you study theinteraction between teenage siblings in a homestead without theirknowledge and record their behavior. In undisguised observation, thegroup under study is aware that it is being observed. The riskassociated with this method is that people can change their behaviorwhen they know they are being monitored.

Qualitativeresearch is structured in a way that it shows group range ofcharacteristics in behavior that control how they react to certainissues. The results are descriptive in nature, used to discovertrends in opinion and thoughts. Quantitative research, on the otherhand, quantifies a problem through numerical figures. It quantifiesviews and behavior. Data that can be measure is used to formulatefacts in research, measures of scale are used

Focusgroups interviews are used to retrieve information on collectiveopinions, and the reasons for those views. They are importantgenerating a rich understanding of participants` experiences andbeliefs. It involves people with common characteristics. Whileinterviews is a conversation between individual and individuals wherethe questions are asked by the interviewer to generate feedback factsor statements from the interviewee, more formal.

Thefigure below shows negative relationship between income and mentalillness. The figures are hypothetical.


Reis,H. T., &amp Judd, C. M. (2014). Handbookof research methods in social and personality psychology.