Cancer, women and men health Summary

Cancer,women and men health

Tenof thousands of new cases of cervical cancer are reported every yearin the United States. This makes it one of the most important healthcare issues in the American society. This calls for identification ofrisks factors and preventive services that can reduce the number ofreported cases and mortality rate. Studies indicate that preventiveservices, mainly frequent screening and change of lifestyle toeliminate some of the risk factors are critical in the management ofcervical cancer. There are several drugs that can be used in thetreatment of cervical cancer. However, there are several long termand short term effects of chemotherapy.


Accordingto the United States Prevention Services Task Force, cases ofcervical cancer have increased to 6.6 per 100,000 women, as at 2008.The number could have significantly increased since then. In 2010over twelve thousand new cases were reported, while more than fourthousand deaths were directly attributed to cervical cancer (USPSTF,2012). Based on these statistics, cervical cancer is an importanthealth care issue affecting the American woman in the modern society.Although there are a wide range of factors that predispose women tocervical cancer, it can be prevented mainly through early treatment.Although there are several risk factors, two of the most importantrisk factors that have a direct impact on preventive strategies areage and behavioral factors.


Accordingto the United States Prevention Services Task Force, theimplementation of strategies and programs that are aimed at increasedthe number of women who are able to access cervical cancer screeninghas significantly reduced the incidences of death could have beenattributed to it. Additionally, majority of the cases of cervicalcancer are as a result of inappropriate screening of the patient.Thus, a health care program that will ensure that all women,especially sexually active women, are screened for cervical cancer isthe most effective preventive service. Screening leads to earlydetection of oncogenic HPV which can lead to cervical cancer. TheUnited States Prevention Services Task Force recommends that allwomen between the age of 21 and 65 years should undergo cervicalcancer screening every three years. This is because evidence suggeststhat the screening reduces incidences of cervical cancer and themortality rate associated with it. There is evidence that screening,especially among women between 30 and 65 years is beneficial, evenwhen it is done every five years. However, screening of women below21 years or above 65 years does not have significance as a preventivestrategy (USPSTF, 2012).

Inaddition to regular screening, there is a need for modification ofother factors that predispose individuals to cervical cancer can havea significant impact on preventive services. Women at risk ofcervical cancer can be given a HPV vaccine to protect them againstviruses that are responsible for cervical cancer. Smoking has alsobeen found to have significant contribution to the risk of cervicalcancer. Encouraging women to stop smoking and advocating for policiesthat protect women from secondhand smoke are essential preventiveservices. Promoting responsible sexual behaviors is also an importantcervical cancer preventive service. HPV is mainly transmitted fromone individual to another through sexual intercourse. Preventing STIis always better than treatment. This is especially important for HPVbecause infections do not have signs and symptoms, and thus treatmentis less likely (Gadducci et al, 2011). Being responsible, avoidingmultiple sexual partners and use of protection, such as condoms, cansignificantly reduce the risk of HPV. Other preventive servicesinclude proper diet, health lifestyle and controlling obesity (Luhnet al, 2013).

Risksfactors and their impacts on preventive services

Preventiveservices are mainly dictated by the risk factors. The preventiveservices aim at modifying or eliminating the risk factors. Thus, twoof the most important risk factors that have a direct impact onpreventive strategies are age and behavioral factors. Sexually womenin their reproductive age are at a higher risk of HPV infections andthus development of cervical cancer. This has a huge influence onpreventive services against cervical cancer. For example, the UnitedStates Prevention Services Task Force recommends that all womenbetween the age of 21 and 65 years should be screened for cervicalcancer after every three years. There are no preventive services thattarget people outside this age blanket, because of significantly lowrisk (USPSTF, 2012).

Anotherrisk factor that directly affects preventive service is behavioralfactors. There are several behaviors that have been attributed toincreased risk of cervical cancer. Many preventive services are aimedat eliminating the risks by discouraging these behaviors. Passiveand active smoking has been attributed to increased risk of cervicalcancer. This has resulted into campaigns against smoking among womenin their reproductive age. Additionally, scientific evidence on thelinkage between smoking and cervical cancer has been used to promoteanti tobacco laws and policies. Other behavioral factors that havemotivated preventive services include lifestyle and diet factors(Luhn et al, 2013). For example, women are encouraged to controltheir weight and eat foods rich in fruit and vegetables.

Drugtreatment options and their implications

Chemotherapyis a common method of cancer treatment and it can be used in themanagement of cervical cancer. It involves the use of anti cancerdrugs, either through injection or ingestion. These drugs aretransported in the bloodstream to all parts of the body and killscancer cells. Chemotherapy is mainly administered together withradiotherapy. Some of the drugs used in the treatment of cervicalcancer include cisplatin, topotecan, carbonplatin, gemzar and taxol. However, there are several long term and short term effects ofchemotherapy. Some of the short term effects include nausea, sores inthe mouth, loss of appetite and fatigue. Some of the long termeffects of chemotherapy include disruption of menstrual cycles,premature menopause, neuropathy, kidney damage, and increased risk ofother terminal diseases such as leukemia. The side effects aredepended on individuals, drug used and dosage (Surwit &amp Alberts,2012).


Canceris one of the most important health care issues in the modern healthcare systems. This is due to the changes in lifestyles, together withother factors. Among the most important cancer affecting women todayis cervical cancer. However, like other cancers, there are preventiveservices that can be used to reduce the prevalence of cervical canceramong women. The most important preventive services include frequentscreening and change of lifestyles. The preventive services are baseon the risk factors that predispose individuals to cervical cancer.Although it is one of the basic treatment methods for cancers,chemotherapy has several long term and short term negative impacts.


GadducciA. et al (2011). &quotSmoking habit, immune suppression, oralcontraceptive use, and hormone replacement therapy use and cervicalcarcinogenesis: a review of the literature&quot. GynecologicalEndocrinology27 (8): 597โ€“604.

LuhnP, et al (2013). &quotThe role of co-factors in the progression fromhuman papillomavirus infection to cervical cancer&quot.GynecologicalOncology128 (2): 265โ€“270.

Surwit,E. &amp Alberts, D. (2012). CervixCancer,Boston, MA: Springer.

USPSTF(2012). FinalRecommendation Statement, Cervical Cancer: Screening,