CHAPTER SUMMARY AND CRITICAL REVIEW 7
ChapterSummary and Critical Review
Chapter5 Summary: Mark Winton and Elizabeth Rash
Thechapter addresses the relationship between the child abuse,neglecting and domestic violence. It explains the meaning of Childabuse and neglect (CAN) and the Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). Therisk factors associated with child abuse and neglect as well as theintimate partner violence is also highlighted. Ross has not left outthe type of abusers as well as the paradigms and theories associatedwith it. These paradigms are Mental illness paradigm, feministparadigm, and intergenerational transmission theory(Ross 2015).
Acase study of Mr. and Mrs. Jones has been evaluated. After losing hisjob, Mr. Jones has adopted a smoking behavior that has causedincreased asthma attacks on the younger son Ben who is studying in achurch school. Increased arguments between the man and wife havebecome heated that the wife ended up dropping a water glass and apiece bounced and cut the husband. There are also changes in the sonas he had started being violent with the elder sister, who babysitshim when the parents are away. At some point, Ben hit his sister whoended up nose bleeding. The loss of Mr. Jones job seems to be thecourse of the arguments in the house. The psychologists explain thatthe violence with Ben could be as a result of overhearing argumentswith the parents.
Thephysical child abuse involves instilling pain on the child`s bodythrough kicking, throwing, burning, and hitting among others. On thechild neglect, the parents or guardian may deny or delay the child`shealth care, abandonment, lack of attention, expulsion from thecustody, inadequate supervision, and denial of educational rights forothers. The intimate partner violence involves physiological oremotional violence, physical violence, sexual violence andinternational perspective among others. Where violence is involved toan intimate partner, there may be physical issues, pregnancymorbidity, and mortality, psychological effects, and effects on thechildren, disability and risky health behaviors among others.According to Ross, the abusers are mostly relatives and other peoplewhom the victim knows.
Mentalillness theory deals with the examination of the character of theoffender as well as the victim that may lead to domestic violence. There is little research on the victim as it is perceived as a blamegame. Therefore, much research focuses on the offender. The offenderis checked whether he committed the crime out of drug influence,madness as well as if the violence was intentional or not.Intergenerational theory deals with violence where the offender mighthave learned violence or obtained it from the family lineage. Thehistory of the perpetrator is examined, and the examination of thehistory focuses on other people around the offender who have suchcharacters. The Feminist theory deals with the probability ofsocietal degradation of women by men as well as male chauvinism. Insuch situations, women may face violence from their male partners,and it is accepted in the society as a culture.
Theauthor further explores the theories and paradigms, which explain theways of finding the courses of the violence. These theories: Mentalillness paradigm, feminist paradigm, and intergenerationaltransmission theory (Ross2015)enable us to understand the causes of the actions of the proprietorto the victim. They focus on the mental condition of the offender,the societal customs surrounding the offender and the history of theoffender in the event of violence respectively. The theories alsoexplain that investigating the offended may be more about blamingthan helping the victim. However, there should be a forum forinvestigating the condition of the victim as he or she may haveprovoked the offender and ended up being tortured or violated. In acase of an intimate partner, the victim might have coerced theactions of the proprietor.
Oneof the most interesting points made in the chapter is that thegreatest violence against children comes from the people who shouldcare for them. According to Ross (2014) violence results from peoplewho know each other. The victims may be the children or an intimatepartner. The children are physically abused or neglected. Theintimate partner can as well face physical and psychological torture.The violence may cause other issues that are secondary to thephysical and the mental issues. For the children, they may sufferphysical abuse as well as neglect as a result of IPV. In thesituation of Mr. and Mrs. Jones the children suffer as a result ofthe issues with the parents.
Anotherinteresting point is that the actions of the parents lead to the harmof the children. This point is seen in the case of Mr. Jones behaviorof smoking. The smoking results to accelerated asthma to the son, Benwho as well starts to bed wet (Ross2015).His violence towards the sister may be due to behavior learned orprobably lack of attention and supervision from the aging parents.The fact that the parents have left Ben to the care of his sister mayalso be causing his violence and eventually bedwetting behavior. Theson could be uncertain and may also be doing the crimes since hemight have witnessed unpleasant incidents of arguing between theparents.
Itis also interesting to learn the risk factors to violence as made inthe chapter. They include low self-esteem, low income, and lowacademic achievement, and young age, aggressive or delinquentbehavior as a youth. Heavy alcohol and drug use may be adoptedsomeone may be depression, Angry and hostile. They may also acquireantisocial personality trait, a borderline personality trait. Theprior history of being physically abusive may result in having fewfriends and being isolated from other people. The abused adults mayhave emotional dependence and insecurity believe in strict genderroles that involve male dominance and aggression in relationships aswell as a desire for power and control in relationships, perpetratingpsychological aggression (Ross2015).
CriticalReaction and Argument
Criticallyarguing, the article by Mark Winton and Elizabeth Rash is favorablyinclined to the protection of the victims. It is worth noting thatthe chapter talks about the violence on the children as well as theintimate partners. Well, for the children it is realistic as thechild has a better way of punishment rather than the physical abuse.However, the cases of neglecting are exaggerated. In some cases, theparents may not be in a position to completely supervise the childrendue to their nature of jobs. However, leaving them under someoneelse`s care does not reflect the child neglect. However, the articleshould also give suggestions on the best way to avoid neglecting thechild as per the author, whereas time does not allow a consistentparental supervision of the kids.
Thereis also much pressure on the offenders on the theories discussed.However, we cannot deny the fact that the offenders may not be alwayswrong. In a case where there is physical abuse between two children,it may be as a result of the defense. In other situations, a parentmay require using a cane as a form of punishment. However, thisshould and must not get to the extreme, as it is against the rightsof the child. Therefore, as the violence is discussed, there shouldbe measures of violence as well as the ability to understand thecondition of the victim at the moment of violence.
Onthe other hand, Mark Winton and Elizabeth Rash have argued well onthe most important matters of Child physical abuse and neglect aswell as the intimate partner violence (Ross2015).They have also identified the kind of abusers that may likely berelated to the offenses. To the children, they may face violence fromtheir parents or guardians, peers or other elders around them. Theneglect is basically from the people who should be taking care ofthem as they grow up. The intimate partners are abused by theirspouse that is, the husband or the wife. We have also realized thatin some cases the violence is intentional while in other cases it isnot intentional.
Theauthors have also highlighted the risks associated with violence. Thevictim is the most affected. However, the author has left out theeffects on the offender. In some situations, the offender may feelguilty and result to some habits that are unacceptable in thesociety. The risks highlighted are very common, and they range fromthe physical effects, health effects and the social effects to thevictim. Apart from being psychologically tortured the victim mightchange their behavior negatively due to reduced self-esteem and withthe intention to fit in the society. In a situation where the societyhas male chauvinism and, therefore, buttering women is not a crime,women have also accepted the situation and end up being violent tothe children.
Ross,L. E. (2014). Continuingthe War Against Domestic Violence.Second edition, BocaRaton:CRC Press