Common Fallacies



Fallaciesare mistaken belief or misconceptions that are always based onunreasonable arguments. Fallacies in most cases lead to invalid orfaulty conclusions. It is important to note that fallacies alwaysseem to any person who represents them as true and legitimate.Hardy(2015)suggests that fallacies seem legitimate because of the how theysound fallacies always at all times seem like good reason to supportan argument. There exist both formal and the informal fallacies.Formal fallacies are based on incorrect logical form while informalfallacies are those fallacies that the errors in them do not matteron the form but matters on the content of the fallacy itself.

Informalfallacies, fallacies that matter on content rather than the form,exist in many forms. Hardy(2015)suggests that fallacies of support, fallacies of relevance andfallacies of clarity come about in some sought. These fallacies areimportant to a person. A person who understands fallacies and triesto avoid them develops habits of being open, trustworthy and able toseparate truth from error. Each of the fallacies is divided intovarious kinds. The fallacy of support are those fallacies that leadpeople to accept conclusions and without taking care of thesupporting evidence. Fallacies of relevance are fallacies that haveunfounded premises that in some cases are not relevant to theconclusion. The fallacies of clarity are fallacies that involve theuse of unclear use of words. Fallacies of clarity always lead tomisunderstanding.

Everybodyin one way or the other is affected by fallacies. Personally I havebeen a victim of fallacies. I have committed the fallacy ofrelevance, specifically the fallacy of appeal to popular opinion. Itwas in my class where everybody considered a certain diagram to be anut. The lecturer provided a picture that looked like a nut andasked, is this a nut?

“Thisis a nut that is all of the people in the class have said”. My deskmate said. I was forced to accept the statement since everybody hadsaid so. I had accepted the fallacy because I felt like it was thetruth because the picture looked just like a nut. This is a fallacybecause I wanted to remain relevant as per the class members`opinion. In the future, therefore, I have to consider all aspects andchoose the right information that is analyzed. Avoiding fallacy insuch a situation would help to separate the truth from wrong.


Hardy,J., Foster, C., &amp Zúñiga y Postigo, G. (2015). With goodreason: A guide to critical thinking.