Q1. Thefield of health care is an ever-evolving one. These changes affectall aspects of health care, ranging from the nature and scope ofdiseases to the technology used in providing medical services topatients. As a result, the role of health care providers also keepschanging at the same pace (Huston, 2014). The duties of a schoolnurse are significantly affected by these changes. This situationraises the question of how the changes in the health care sectoraffect the roles of the school nurse. The locality in which a schoolnurse offers their service has a direct relation to their servicedelivery. This section seeks to explore this relationship and pointout the possible problems it can create for the nurse.
Thelocale in which a school nurse works creates unique problems andcircumstances that vary from locale to locale. For example, thelocale directly affects how much the nurse earns for their services.The more affluent the locale is, the more the nurses earn for theservices they offer. Being that school nurses mostly work in schoolsand other learning institutions, most of their work revolves aroundattending to children and adolescents (Nies & McEwen, 2015).Consequently, the problems that they encounter in the course of thework depend on the health care needs of the children and adolescentsin their locale.
Theenvironments in which school nurses operate creates unique healthcare needs depending on the children and adolescents they treat. AsThornbory (2009) asserts, espite most health problems in childrenbeing universal, they vary in every local level. Over the last tenyears, the number of children who need specialized medical acre hasbeen on the rise. In schools, the duty of addressing their healthproblems falls squarely on the school nurses. Asthma, diabetes andobesity and other chronic conditions are common in children acrossthe globe. However, the prevalence of such conditions depends on thelocale. For example, a locale with wealthy families is likely to havechildren with obesity that a locale in a slum dwelling.
Safetyand security create a suitable environment for people to conducttheir daily businesses. This applies even to school nurses. As Huston(2014) agrees, in zones that are prone to violence, providing healthcare becomes a challenge. The nurses cannot perform optimally if theyhave to be constantly on the lookout for the sake of their protectionand that of the patients. In violent locale, the problem is two way.On top of making it difficult for nurses to perform theirprofessional duties, crime and violence also create unique healthcare needs. Gunshot wounds, knife stabs and other forms of injuriesare some of the situations that nurses have to address in the courseof their work. This happens to be one the greatest problems in myarea.
Q2. TheHealthy People program is a program geared towards promoting nationalhealth and preventing diseases in a bid to enhance the universalhealth of people in the United States. The program comprises of acollection of goals and objectives that are spaced in ten yearperiods. Currently, Healthy People 2020 is the phase of the programunder implementation with the vision of crafting “a society inwhich all people live long, healthy lives.” This section of thepaper seeks to explore HIV as one of the areas relating to communityhealth nursing under Healthy People 2020.
HIVis one of the objectives of the Healthy People 2020 program. Eventoday, HIV is a crisis in the healthcare sector in the United Statesthat needs addressing. Going by the figures provided by thisobjective, about 1.1 million Americans live with the disease withabout 56,000 new infections annually. Gender disparities are eminentin this setup. Most of the new infections occur in men, mostly in gayand bisexual men who take up more than50% of new HIV infections.Apart from sex and sexual orientation, the race also createsdifferences as far as HIV infections are concerned. The race alsocreates disparities. African American led the lot with 45% of theinfections while Hispanics record the lowest infections, taking upjust 17%.
TheHealthy People 2020 program has several objectives geared towardsaddressing the HIV crisis in the United States. One of theseobjectives is to reduce the number of new HIV infections that occurin adolescents and adults. The baseline for this objective is the2006 figure of HIV infections among people aged 13 and over. The datafor this objective is provided by the National HIV SurveillanceSystem. In this year, 48,600 of people in this age bracket wereinfected with the disease. With this background in mind, thisobjective seeks to lower this figure to 36,450 people by the year2020. In its implementation, the objective will be in line with othernational programs, laws, policies and regulations regarding the sameissue.
Thetask of a community health nurse is paramount in the achievement ofthis objective. The reason is that HIV infections occur in thecommunity and as a result, the community health nurse is in touchwith the situation than other health care providers (Nies &McEwen, 2015). The community nurse can perform several duties in linewith the objective of reducing HIV infections. These roles mainlyrevolve around prevention. Some of the roles that community nursescan perform include increasing the community’s access to HIVprevention techniques and providing care to those who are alreadyinfected. Other interventions can include the formation ofcommunity-based awareness and self-help groups to create awareness ofHIV, its spread and how to curb it.
Huston,C. J. (2014). Professionalissues in nursing: Challenges & opportunities.
Nies,M.A., & McEwen, M. (2015). Community/public health nursing:Promotion of health of populations (6th Ed.). St. Louis, MO:Saunders/Elsevier
Thornbory,G. (2009). Publichealth nursing: A textbook for health visitors, school nurses andoccupational health nurses.Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.