CRAFTSMANSHIP AND CRAFT HISTORY 8
Craftsmanshipand Craft History
Variousarticles address thehistory of art during the twentieth century differently.Some take different perspectives and viewpoints. One of the articlesthat explain the history is Craftsmenin the factory of images from boys craft writtenby Tami Katz-Frieberg.In this article, Katz-Friebergexplains the purpose of art and craft in the perspective of thepre-industrial period. In this period, craftsmanship depended upongender and age as the determinants of the people practicing it. Atthe same time, Katz-Frieberg looks at craftsmanship from theperspective of gender in the pre-industrial time.
Thearticle explores the craft tasks that were gender specific therebybring the gender element of craftsmanship. At the same time, thearticle views the old act of craftsmanship as related to thepre-historic period. In this manner, thearticle presents critical information about the twentieth centurycraft history.To understand the craftsmanship in the pre-industrial times,Katz-Friebergexplores the aspects of modern craft work. This is effective inpresenting arguments because Katz-Frieberg gives the reader thecomparative element of understanding the craftsmanship in thetwentieth century.
Inthe text that dates in the late 19th century andearly 20th century, Katz-Friebergexplores the revolution of the art and craft and the development ofcraftsmanship as a skilled discipline. This drove the development ofthe skills in the study and ushered the new craftsmanship of the latetwentieth century. Exploring this article exposes the issuesdiscussed by Katz-Frieberg and the understanding of the perspectivesof the twentieth century craft. More importantly, the study andunderstanding of the article open to the knowledge of the variouspurposes of art and craft in the late nineteenth century and thetwentieth century.
Craftsmanshipand Craft History
Thearticle Craftsmenin the factory of images from boys craftby Tami Katz-Frieberg addresses the history of art during the 20thcentury. The article describes the attributed purpose of craft fromthe pre-industrial period to the modern period and eventually to thecontemporary world. During the pre-industrial period, art and craftwere a skill that boys and girls acquired. The skill was to preparethem for the future (Adamson 2007). During the industrial period,people started using the power for the economic purpose. Thehandicrafts would be sold to earn a living in the capitalisticsociety. In the contemporary world, art and craft were embraced as anornamental skill that facilitated beauty. It followed the formationof a feminist movement in 1970 that sensitized the society on theneed to appreciate art and craft as a skill (Russell & Norvig2014).
Craftsmanshipwas initially divided depending on the gender. The tasks were genderspecific. The girls were taught tasks gendered to females and boystaught tasks gendered to males. The girls` tasks included sewing,weaving, knitting, home economics and cooking. The boys` worksincluded carving, use of a screwdriver, cutting, sewing and building(Adamson 2009). The girls` tasks would give them the skills thatwould help them be skillful as females. The boys would obtain skillsthat would build them as males. They did the vigorous activities thatdeveloped their body muscles. These tough jobs were associated withthe male gender.
Theold act was associated with the pre-industrial period. During themodern period, the art was revolutionized for economic purpose. Thecontemporary world would do the craftsmanship and sell the product.The unique tradition became a trend. Due to high market demands ofmanmade crafts, the art became worldwide (Kaufman 2007). The increasein supply would suit the increasing demands. In the process of therise in the art activity, an art and craft movement emerged. The mainidea of the movement was to sensitize people that the art and thetough acts associated with it was therapeutically essential. It wouldheal a soul through concentration. The art and craft boosted theindividuals with the skill economically during the widespreadcapitalistic period.
Eventually,the art task was slowly associated with feminine attributes in theRenaissance period. The work required keenness, concentration,patience and accuracy. All these attributes were feminine. Theperception changed with the formulation of the first Feminism Wave inthe 1960s and early 1970s (Adamson 2009). The radical feministsdecided to amend the knowledge of the society and revive thetraditional culture. The movement helped in generating a new view ofthe handicrafts within the society. The inferiority associated withthe handcrafts started to vanish slowly. The increased credit onhandcrafts improved the gender view.
Accordingto Kaufman (2007) handcrafts gained value and feminine had an upperhand. People and various teams started to support the art. The taskthat was associated with strenuous activities was spiced withobsession, and the product was authenticity. The authentic productsbecame ornamental. They were used for beauty purposes. Cheap and usedmagnetic materials were recycled to produce aluminum plates, glassbeads and galvanized netting among others. These ornaments opened adoorway to an exhibition where the products became more authentic.The private and domestic lace making upgraded to monumentalarchitectural installations. There was no longer difference in artand design. Art became closely related to design as it depended onmodel for survival.
Thehistorical text dates back to the late 19th century and early 20thcentury. The task is historical on the revolution of art and craft.The work eventually began as a skilled study. It was lowly rated asits sole purpose was to teach people basic skills. In fact, theskills were gender specific and more laborious tasks were left forthe masculine gender. The skills would prepare both boys and gals forfuture jobs. With time, there was a need to capitalize the power inthe modern period.
Theindustrial era ushered in the capitalist idealism that forced peopleto be productive and use their skills. The knowledge on handcraft wasessential in that era (Russell & Norvig 2014). However, it wasstill less valued. The formation of feminist movement helped inupgrading the skill as it started being used for beauty purpose.There was no longer gender discrimination, and all tasks were done byall people. The art and design further upgraded for exhibition andthere were a larger market and increased value of art and craft. Thepaper is theoretical in that it provides a conceptual history of the20th-century craftsmanship. The art and craft are theoreticallydescribed regarding its evolution.
Thearticle is well written at first it begins with a feminist view ofthe first person narration. The narrator is a female. She explainshow the study of the art and craft was gender specific. How the boysand girls were separated and would come up with various tasks. Thearticle also focuses on how the society viewed the art. It iscritically analyzed at a feminine look. The art and craft wereattributed to women due to the associated of the skilled people. Theyneeded to be patient, observant and skillful regarding design. Thesequalities made the tasks associated with women. There was a smallregard for women and all tasks associated with them. Eventually,feminists` radicals formed a feminine movement that helped in theredeeming of the traditional culture and the value of the job. Thesewomen eventually managed in convincing the society about the value ofhandcrafts (Adamson 2009). It was later embraced by the community asan important task and men also did it.
Thereis a constant association of the function with feminism. Therefore,history embarks on the feminine nature of art and craft, and the rolewomen took in the redemption of the value of the skill. There is alsothe male feminist who helped in upgrading the skill that wasassociated with women over an extended period. The task had a lowcredit in a male chauvinistic society. However, as women continued toadvocate for feminism, women were credited in the society and so waseverything else associated with them.
Thearticle is also clear about the revolution of art. During the early20th century, the art and craft were associated with women. Therewere gender based art and craft acts. These handcrafts were genderspecific and, therefore, there were disparity in the skill knowledge.Following the feminist movement in the 1970s, the boys startedacquiring skills that were initially associated with females. Themovement is to take pride in their success to change the society viewof the art and craft. In the 20th century, the art and craft was asheer skill whose sole purpose was to prepare boys and girls forfuture (Adamson 2009). The skills are upgraded for commercial use.However, the credit was still quiet since it was associated with thefeminine gender.
Thefemale movement did not only manage to make the society change theirperspective towards art and design but also helped in the formulationof new ideologies. It was at this period when both genders receivedequity that homosexuality was embrace (Adamson 2009). Men would takeup the feminine tasks and so would they be attracted to other men.There was a widespread embrace of people`s abilities and alsointerests. The interests were careful and sensitively appreciated,and the interests would be focused on good designs. During theincreased art and design period, there was also a positive additionto the value of the revived traditional culture (Russell & Norvig2014). It was not only commercial art, but also an ornamentalindustry.
Thereis a significant contribution of the article to the field of20th-century craft history. The explanation of the revolution of artand craft cannot go unnoticed by the historians. There is asystematic account of the earlier regards of crafts and the gradualdevelopment towards its value in the 21st century. The role of womenin the reviving the traditional culture is well stipulated and can betraced in the contemporary world. The reasons behind the attributedrevolution are well explained. Historically, the article focuses onvital information about the craft history. The aftermath of thesocietal acceptance of the skill is also stated. The competence andembracement are associated with developed embracement of otherideologies which includes the homosexuality. People eventuallyappreciated others and their interests.
Russell,S. J., & Norvig, P. (2014). Artificialintelligence: A modern approach.Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.
Adamson,G. (2009). The craft reader.Oxford: Berg.
Adamson,G. (2007). Thinking through craft.Oxford: Berg.
Kaufman,C. (2007). Synecdoche, New York.Los Angeles, CA: Artists Group.