Stepsof goods and service design include


Thisis the step of designingusing cross-functionalteams such as customers and marketing.

Manufacturability&amp Value Engineering

Evaluateswhether the product can bemade in large quantities.Usually,involveusing commonly found components and simplify assembly of the product.


ServiceProduct Matrix

Theservice matrixis used to show the way the desired customer service perceptionconverts into proper service system design. Service positioningmatrixis used by managers to figure out operational and marketing networks.It also helps managers to think about roles of client and serviceprovider in giving services, designs of

Productpositioning matrix

Thisis customer perception about a givenproduct within the context of theoverallmarket, and other product markets. The aim of creating a productpositioning matrixis to identify places in the market that show needs thatare not met by the market. If the product caters for the recognizedneeds better than the other products in the market, the product willbe from other product and,therefore, have an advantageover others.


Bothproduct positioning matrix and service positioning matrix are used tohelp come up with product strategies that give productsadvantage over other products in the market.

Bothmatrices show a graphicalrepresentation of a marketscenario.


Productposition matrix


Anexample of product positioning matrixis the Boston Consulting Group matrix founded by the BostonConsulting Group. It helps organizations with market strategy.

Advantagesof BCG matrix

Examplesof BCG matrix include its simplicity in application to resourceallocation decisionsacross the portfolio.

LimitationBCG matrix is so simple that it leaves out important detailsconcerning the product. These may cause factors to be left out whendetermining factors that lead to outcomes.

Serviceposition matrix

Customerrouted pathway

Thisallowsthe customersa wide range of choices concerning pathwaysthat they preferfor their immediate needs from a range of existing service deliverypathways.

Advantagesof customerrouted pathway

Thematrix gives the consumer freedom of choice hence autonomy inchoosing. Customer routed pathwaysalso ensure maximum satisfaction of the client.


Thefirm that provide the services may have less freedom to control theirservice delivery and may cause reduced profits as a result ofexpensive consumer choices regardingpathwayto be used.

Theposition servicematrix gives the consumers convenience when beingserved is considered and,therefore, ensuresconsumer satisfaction.


toimprove operations, one of the changes would be to have a device witha directory for some of the servicein the car, just like there is adirectory for places where tocharge.

Thecar should have an computer system towarn the driverabout the remainingmileagebefore leaving for a destination.


Facilitylayout for MacDonaldand Wendy’s

Whencustomers go to Macdonald’s, they enter the building and line up ina queue among several possible linesand wait for theirturn to beserved. On the other hand, atWendy’s, theystand I a singlequeuethat spirals around from the areaof the service counter and wait fortheir turn to beoffered service.


Thedisadvantage of Macdonald’sfacility layout is that more serversare neededat any given time. Therefore, it needs more counters and more moneyto pay workers. On the other hand, in the case of Wendy’s, verymany customers are served by one server hence the server may gettired. Also, the customers wait a long time before being served.


Inthe case of Macdonald’s fast foods shops, the customers wait a veryshort time because the servers are many, and therefore service takesshorter times unlike in Wendy’s.The advantage of Wendy’s facility layout, where people line up Ione queue, few servers areneeded and,therefore, few counters. Thisconsumes less space as compared to Macdonald’s.


Thesupply chain strategy of Apple Inc. is one of the most effectivewith regards to responsiveness, technology, and customer-relatedmeasures. This wasachieved by reducing the number ofcomponents from 100 to 24,therefore, making companiescompete to work with Apple, therefore improving the qualityof services. Thenumber of warehouses is also small to avoid overstocking. Apple alsoturns itsinventory atintervals of fivedays as keeping large stocksin a technologycompany is risky due to newreleases.

Areasof effectiveness

Smallnumber of componentsuppliers makes it efficient in providingsupplies.

Reducednumber of warehouses reduces overstocking.

Reducednumber of warehousesreducesthe costof maintaining warehouses.

Weaknessesof Apple supply chain

Delayedsales lead to clients waitinglonger for released products to besold.

Reducedstocking risk the product running out of stock.

Reducednumber of warehouses may resultin a lack of space incase of an unexpected drop in demand.

Howto improve on the deficiencies

Toimprove on the shortcomings, thecompany should increase the number of suppliers and insist on qualityin the contracts. The company should also enhancethe speed of sales to avoid keeping customers waiting for too long.Samsung, for example,has a bigger number of suppliers making it diverse regardingquality and efficiency. Samsung also has more warehouses as comparedto Apple,therefore avoidingdelays in sales.


Themedicalpractice involves orthopedic surgery procedures and requires a safetycapacity of 10 percent. To achieve this and at the same time increaserevenue, the options would include to hire a newsurgeon for one day in the weekand increase the number of available hours for work. In this way,here will be more time for service delivery to the clients while theone doctor hired one day in a week would ensure that the workload ofthe available doctors is relieved and at the same time more work isdone in the extra hours.

Howto apply the theory of constraints

Thetheory of constraints asserts that weaknesseswithin them usually limit organizations ability to reach theirpotential. For instance, in thecase of the doctor’s clinic, the ability to achieve successregardingqualityof service and income is reduced by the limitation of time and numberof doctors.


Challengesof helpdeskUSA

Challengesfacing help deskUSA include increasing help desk costs, achieving therequirementof government conditions and making sure that employees haveadequate knowledge about business progress. Tosolve the challenges, helpdeskUSA should find a way to transfer knowledge to clients,therefore,reduce the number and length of calls and increase the qualityof work of employees by ensuring they areadequately informed of businessprogress.

Forecastingmodel to forecast the short-term demand

Thestatistical forecasting model,because statistical methods areusually grouped as time seriesmodels that can mine historical time series information. To achieve aproper statistical analysis, one needs a record of event history indepth. This can help find out the time it took forthe call to bepicked and the tie it took fora response to be made.


Ireland,R. D., HOSKISSON, R., &amp HITT, M. (2014). Strategic Management:Concepts and Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. Boston:South-Western College Publishing.