Miles,Robert, and Malcolm Brown. Racism.Psychology Press, 2003.
Racismis a book authored by Robert Miles, who is the director of StudyAbroad and also an experienced Professor of Sociology his co-authorof the book, Malcolm Brown,on the other hand,lectures sociology at Exeter University. The bookhighlightsthe different meanings of the term racism with the context ofimmigration. According to the authors, the definition of the wordracist should be dynamic and change according to scenarios. Themeaning of the term should not be so widethat it becomes ambiguous. It should also not be too narrow that itlimits the understanding of the term.According to the authors, racism and nationalism may be confused ifthe term racism iswidenedso that it is defined as classification individuals onthe basis ofcolor,as nationalismusuallypromotes conservative agendas as a result of culture and a longhistory. Therefore,nationalist parties should not be classified as racialparties. The writers argue that the term has variations indefinitions according to contexts within which it isused.The book may be relevant tothe researchas a source of reference for the definitionof the term racism and a deeper understanding of its effect whenapplied in a Europeancontext.
KoppelmanK. A Review of What Does It Mean to Be White? Developing White RacialLiteracy. MulticulturalPerspectives[serial online]. August 201315(3):174-176. Available fromAcademic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 11, 2015.
RobinDiAngelo is currently a Director at Equity for Senior Services and adoctorateholder from the Universityof New York. Koppelman reviews Diangelo’s work making it simpler tounderstand the book. The reviewfocuseson DiAngelo’s perspective of the racist culture that exists amongsome white people in a white woman`spoint of view. The reviewgives insight into the effect of racism amongteachers to the students of color and education in general. Thereviewalso emphasizes DiAngelo’s ideas of how white people avoid thetopic of racism in their discussions, terming segregation asaccidental and minor while it is indeed a major problem in manysectors of the economy of America. Koppelmansummarythe longbook by DiAngelomakesit easier to apply for the sake of the researchquestion.The article may be useful in discussing the effects ofracism as a result of ignorance towards the issue by white studentsand teachers and its impactsonthe education of the coloredminorities. It may also give knowledge about issues like whiteprivilegesthat were seen to increase racialsegregation and whitesupremacy.
ChaneyC, Robertson R. Racism and Police Brutality in America. JournalOf African American Studies[serial online]. December 201317(4):480-505. Available fromAcademic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 11, 2015.
Thearticle provides example based discussion on police brutality in theUnited States of America experienced recently even as the countrycontinues to disregard racism as a major problem among citizens. Themain idea of the article is how the brutality of the police againstblack people of America has negatively influenced the relationshipbetween the colored people and law enforcement agents and,therefore,hindering security and increasing crime amongst the black community.The article will be vitalin discussing and giving evidence about the existenceof racism in the American police force. The textdescribesthe racial crimes committed by the police, including the 1991incident that involved the beating of a black man by the officers ofthe Los Angeles Police Department. In the article, racism isdiscussed within the context of an ideology that promotes beliefs ofracial inequality. It may also help understand the effects of racismin the country in a wider perspective that may also include ingovernment and the health sector. The article is also important Ihelping understand why stopping racism is hard as it isalso conductedby the law enforcement agencies that are supposed to protect therights of the people. The article will provide importantinformation about why it is hard for law enforcement agents to reduceracism in America.
Harrell,Jules P., Sadiki Hall, and James Taliaferro. "Physiologicalresponses to racism and discrimination: an assessment of theevidence." AmericanJournal of Public Health93.2 (2003):243-248.
Thejournal article studies the chemical variations of substancesreleased in the body as a result of stress. Racial discrimination,just like any other stressor stimulus, causes emotional arousal.This, just like for other stressors, causes physiological changesthat may lead to health problems such as elevated blood pressure. Thearticle focuses on laboratory studies performed on black participantswho had visited clinics for stress-relatedhealth problems. However, there was no uniqueness in the physiologicalchanges compared with other stressors. The studies,therefore,led to the conclusion in the journal that racism is a source ofstress that may lead to health conditions that may reduce the lifeexpectancies of victims of racism. Although the studies were in theblack person point of view, the findings are relevant tothe study of the effects of racism in general. The article may usedin discussing racism in a rather scientific point of view that mostresearchers do not. The articlemay give a chance to shift from sociological arguments to scientific,evidence-basedargument.
Fredrickson,George M. Racism:A short history.Princeton University Press, 2009.
Fredricksonwas a professor at Stanford University, where he lectured on thehistory of the United States of America. He uses his expertise in the issue of American history to write theshort story about racism in a historical perspective. The lateprofessor in his bookdiscusses race as a component of other social aspects such asreligion and the history of the nineteenth and the twentieth century.In strengtheninghis argument, the author also includes issues outside the UnitedStateshistory that may have curved the course of racism. These include theapartheid in SouthAfricaand the Nazism in Germany.Inthe book, the author gives a glimpse intothe roots of racism in the UnitedStatesof America in a way that can beconnectedto thepresent times of the country. The short story by ProfessorFredricksonmay be useful in discussing the introductorypart of the research. This is because it may give goodbackground information onthe topic of study, letting the target audience of the studyunderstand the source of the problem and why it is important tounderstand its impacts on the victims. By discussing issues such aswhite superiority, the book is an important aspect of the researchthat may merge history to the prevailingproblems associated with racism as there has been no significantchange in impacts, but settings.