History of Psychology and Systems

Historyof Psychology and Systems




Historyof Psychology and Systems


Contributionsof both Benjaminand Dorothea to the Development of diagnosis and treatment inAmerican psychology

BothBenjamin Rush and Dorothea Dix made immense contributions to thedevelopment of treatment and diagnosis in the American psychology.Firstly, Benjamin was one of the America’s physicians who wereleading in the social and health reforms during his time. Rush workedtirelessly to promote the general health of the Americans. Forexample, the first free dispensary in America was established by Rushin 1986. Secondly, in 1793, there was yellow fever epidemic thataffected the Americans (Hobbs, 1964). During this time, I see Rushworking heroically and tirelessly to take care of the patients,treating them, and helped in controlling the spread of the diseaseat the same time he was keeping good record about the patients.Additionally, Rush promoted radical blood-letting and drasticpurgation as a way of treatment his treatment turned out to besuccessful and was first applied to him. Lastly, Rush`s contributionto medicine has stood to be the test of the time this is because headvocated the simplifications of the diagnosis and treatment of anydisease.

Onthe other hand, I perceive Dix as another physician who made effortsand initiated the expansion of more than thirty hospitals in Americahis target was to help the mentally ill patient. In her role, Dixstarted a movement that was meant to challenge the notation thatpeople who are mentally challenged could not be helped or cured.Moreover, she was hard to critic the neglectful and cruel practicesthat were subjected to the mentally challenged persons. I amconvinced that this was an alarm that brought great changes on howAmerican treated the mentally ill person. Her focus bore crucialvictories and resulted in asylum reform that led to a diagnosis ofmental disorder and subsequent treatment practiced today.


KarenHorney regarding her position of cultural factors in the cause ofmental disorders

KarenHorney is a woman who was known for her strong critic of Freudianpsychoanalysis. Additionally, I have realized that Horney was thefounding mother of the humanistic psychology that is studied to date.Her position in culture and how some cultural factors can lead tomental disorders is emphasized through her work when counteringSigmund Freud`s theory. Regarding arguments, I think that she wastrying to make it clear that cultural, social, and interpersonalfactors are the main formations of personality. Her position as faras a mental disorder is concerned is that the causes of anxiety andneurosis are the same both in male and female thus contradicting withFraud`s emphasis that tend to be ‘male bias` when it comes tofeminine psychology. As a result, Horney believed that anxiety andneurosis (a relatively mild mental disorder) is caused by socialforces and damaged personal relationships in both men and women(Horney, 2013).


Comparisonand contrast of Binswanger and Kelly’s views of psychotherapy

BothBinswanger and Kelly are psychologists who focused on personalconstruct psychology to examine the changes that could promotepositive changes in psychotherapy. The two psychologists argued thatthe main objective of psychotherapy was too ambitiouslyreconstructing the psychological life (Edwards,1990).Additionally, I see the contributions made by both Binswanger andKelly to be same because they both emphasized the importance ofexamining the meaning of a symptom in patients. Moreover, the twopsychotherapists argued that psychotherapists should never be allowedto interpret anything using a pre-established framework of meaningthat is for or against the therapist’s invention.

However,there are numerous differences that exist between Binswanger andKelly work of psychotherapy. Firstly, Binswanger applied Heidegger`sperception of the problems that are associated with the body and mindto derive his philosophical ideas on psychotherapy he was trying tounderstand and develop a treatment plan for the psychiatric patients(Edwards,1990).On the other hand, Kelly was focused on theories that would be usedto make sense in the world therapy and how the world is like and howbehavioral actions attested the viability of the theories accuracy.Secondly, Kelly concentrated more on personalconstruct psychology (PCP) and asserted that the role of the PCPtherapist is to integrate the roles played by the clinician andscientist. On the other hand, Binswangerconcentrated more on establishing an approach that wasnon-reductionistic to all human distress and sufferings. Binswangerbased his study on the family members that had suffered frompsychiatry for a long time.

Fromthe above analysis on Binswanger and Kelly’s work on psychotherapy,I think that they two guys did an extemporary great job in theirstudies. However, I am convinced that they two guys failed to counterthe theoretical exclusions to the psychotic patients from otherpsychologists such as Fraud`s psychoanalysis. They would havefurthered their researches and emphasis on the meaning of patient`ssymptoms and how the symptoms influenced psychotherapy in a patient.


Allthe President’s Psychologists’ and how it defines moment in theHistory of Psychology

Afterreading the paper &quotallthe president’s psychologists&quotI have realized that there are various defining moments when it comesto the history of psychology in the American history. Additionally, Ihave analyzed the paper and noted that it is paramount to be mindfulon all the fundamental principles and strategies that are used todefine the overhaul behaviors in the health and associations.According to “All presidents’ psychologists” article,professionalism is the best criterion that can be used to expandknowledge and human perception on psychology (Rubenzer&amp Faschingbauer, 2004).This means that, historically, there is a need to the incumbent theprofessionalism in the health center in American code of ethics suchas responsibility, honesty, integrity, and self-regulate to supporthuman psychology. For example, I see some aspect of dishonesty whenthe scientist in the United States government who was the advisor inGeorge Bush’s behavior goes ahead and secretly drafted a researchon language.

Consequently,after reading through the article, I have seen there was the massivewidespread use of secrets and complicity between the APA and the CIAespecially in the administration`s official in Bush office. As aresult, in my personal onion, I perceive the article as showedmisguided psychological opinions among the people of America. This isbecause the article has presented false misrepresentations andstatements on psychological facts. Historically, I can conclude thatthe email that was presented through the APA should be represented tothe general public and the American citizens about psychologiststhis is because I am convinced the interrogation that took place wasabusive and false the interrogation also presented misrepresentationfacts. For instance, I can give the example of the statement thatasserts that the policy used by APA on matters that concernpsychologist participation during interrogation is mainly aimed atprotecting the rights for the detainees (Rubenzer&amp Faschingbauer, 2004).Consequently, I am convinced that there is a need to the APA to carryout maximum investigations the issues of detainees’ abuse andtorture by the alleged CIA. Otherwise, it is evident that theAmericans will leave to have negative motives on matters that concerndetainees.


Whatis the vision for the psychology’s future and practices?

Fromwhat I have learned so far, I think there is a strong feature when itcomes to psychology practices. As a result, I get convinced thatthere is future in psychology however, I think there is a need tochange the current traditional ways through which psychology ispracticed this calls for taking new practices that are possible inthe society (Alex,Joseph, Harrington, &amp Wood, 2006).Additionally, there is a vision in psychology because scientists areinventing new ways when treating and diagnosing new illnesses. Forexample, there are advanced genetics, neuroscience, and collaborativehealth care systems that are more relevant to the psychology thanbefore. As a result, I feel there is a need to embrace the variousopportunities that are collaborative with integrated with science andanother discipline. Lastly, technology is growing very fast, and itshould be embraced in psychology. The modern practices in psychologyshould be used when handling mental health cases through theprovision of integrated health care.


AlexLinley, P., Joseph, S., Harrington, S., &amp Wood, A. M. (2006).Positive psychology: Past, present, and (possible) future. TheJournal of Positive Psychology,1(1),3-16.

Edwards,D. J. (1990). Cognitive-behavioral and existential-phenomenologicalapproaches to therapy: Complementary or conflicting paradigms?.Journalof Cognitive Psychotherapy,4(2),105-120.

Hobbs,N. (1964). MENTAL HEALTH`S THIRD REVOLUTION*. AmericanJournal of Orthopsychiatry,34(5),822-833.

Horney,K. (2013). The problem of feminine masochism. ThePsychoanalytic Review,100(5),675-694.

Rubenzer,S. J., &amp Faschingbauer, T. R. (2004). Personality,character, and leadership in the White House: Psychologists assessthe presidents.Potomac Books, Inc..