Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

Journalof Pain and Symptom Management


1-You have learned that qualitative inquiry does not have a shared setof evaluative criteria in the same way that quantitative inquirydoes. Why do you think this is so?

The qualitative inquiry does notshare the same evaluative criteria with quantitative inquiry due tothe principles behind each of them. Qualitative inquiry focuses on aspecific phenomenon and tries to understand it at a deeper level.This is usually done through interviews using open-ended questions.The number of participants is few due to the amount of time andresources required for this approach. The researcher can understandthe experience of each when it comes to a specific phenomenon.Quantitative inquiry on the other hand mainly focuses on describing aphenomenon that applies to a very large number of participants. Thismethod studies a huge group of individuals and then appliesstatistical techniques to estimate overall patterns and trends.Usually, a control group that is unaffected by the phenomenon understudy is required for comparison.

2-In Van Eechoul, et al., 2014, to what extent are the philosophicalfoundations of the study, the research purpose and the approach todata collection aligned with one another? Support your response.

The philosophical foundations ofthe study, the purpose of the research and the approach to datacollection are all aligned on the principle of understanding rolesthose family members of old patients played during decision makingwhen the patient’s life is eminently ending. This is shown by howthe interviews were carried out. The interviewers were usingopen-ended questions that enabled them to gain the experiences andviews of the participants.

3- Identify the type of sample and assess its adequacy for theresearch purpose.

The type of sample is conveniencesample. The researchers went to a specific location in Belgium andobtained the first specific number of patients together with theirfamily members who agreed to take part in the study. The adequacy ofthis method for the research purpose was a perfect fit. This isbecause most patients who are terminally ill and facing death usuallygo through almost similar emotional turmoil. The same thing goes fortheir close family members. Especially when it comes todecision-making on whether to prolong life or to let go.

4-Do you believe the rights of the participants were adequatelyprotected? Why or why not?

I think the rights of theparticipants were adequately covered. This is because the patientswere first asked for their consents and then the family members wereas well asked for their consent. All the participants were then fullyinformed about the objectives of the research and how the interviewswould take place. All this was done before the participants signedthe forms of consent and the interviews begun.

5-Assess the study on Tracy’s criteria for resonance. Please commenton two of the three methods she identifies as contributing toresonance.

Transferable findings happen whenthe reader is reading the research feels like some of the situationsin the study may relate to him or her. This is usually achieved byconducting personal interviews and obtaining one on one testimonial.It also relates to the ability to evoke real emotions in the reader.This makes the reader feel like they have ever undergone such ascenario in a different life.

Aesthetic, evocativerepresentation mainly deals with how artistic and beautiful the studyreport writing is presented. An aesthetic piece of work deeplyaffects the reader and makes them relate to the written work. This isachieved through the use of correct sentence structures, propergrammar, and a good vocabulary. The writer should avoid jargon. Whena reader is deeply moved by a piece of written work, they are mostlikely to follow the information that they have read.

6-What activities of the researchers strengthen your confidence in thestudy findings? List at least four things the researchers did inconducting or reporting the study and describe the contribution torigor.

Theactivities that the researchers did to strengthen my confidence inthe study findings are:

• Theyfully designed the study. From the people under study to the locationof study and finally the time the study was undertaken.

• Thedata collection was done correctly, and even an independent membertranscribed the audio tapes verbatim.

• Thedata was analyzed fully using positional maps to show the fullpositions of all the family members.

• Theresearchers validated their findings by triangulating using othermethods. This made the analysis more accurate.

7-Identify at least two things that the researchers could have donethat would further strengthen the study?

• Theycould have conducted the study while using a larger sample. Thiswould have enabled the results obtained to be postulated among thewhole population in Belgium.

• Theycould have also determined more research questions that were to beanswered at the end of the study. Examples of such questions couldbe what family members usually feel the need to be surrogates? Whatfactors may influence the decision that a patient may take when itcomes to the end? Such questions will ensure that the researchers getall the information that they were seeking when they first undertookthe study.


VanEechoud, Ineke J., et al. &quotPerspectives of family members onplanning end-of-life care for terminally ill and frail older people.&quotJournal of pain andsymptom management47.5 (2014): 876-886.