Linguistics #1



  1. France- a country whose capital city is Paris.

  2. Book- all books read by students in the world.

  3. Red- all the red clothing like shirts and dresses worn by people in the world.

  4. Noam Chomsky- an American philosopher, logician, linguist, cognitive scientist, social justice activist and political commentator.

  5. Eat- people taking their meals

  6. Fox- an animal that lives in holes

  7. Student- all students in the world who attend school and classes.

  8. Statue of liberty- a national monument in USA’s New York City.


PartA- hypernym

  1. Hammer- mason’s hammer

  2. T-shirt- clothing

  3. Pink- color

  4. Mother- parent

  5. Fish- water living animal

PartB- hyponyms

  1. appliance- refrigerator

  2. city- New York City

  3. Musical instrument- guitar

  4. furniture- table

  5. fish- tilapia


Sweatand perspire make the same sense. This is because they represent thesame process which is removal of sweat from the mammal’s sweatglands. In both processes sweat removal is done through the skin andhence no citable difference can be detected. They have the samereference since they involve mammals being animals as well as humanbeings. I would consider these terms to be synonyms. This is becausethey are common processes which are done in a similar manner which isremoval of sweat from sweat glands and through the same media whichis the skin. Everything concerning these processes is similar.


  1. Flourish-thrive. Synonyms

  2. Intelligent-stupid. Antonyms

  3. Casual-informal. Synonyms

  4. Young-old. Antonyms

  5. Uncle-aunt. Antonyms

  6. intelligent-smart- synonyms

  7. flog-whip- synonyms

  8. drunk-sober- antonyms



Theprefix un- forms a relational opposite type of antonym. This isbecause the words are explaining the reverse of a certain activity.For example unwrap indicates undoing the wrapping process that wasinitially done. This reveals that the prefix un- form a relationalopposite antonym.


Theprefix in- used in this part forms a complementary pairs type of anantonym. This is because these terms signify a complete absence ofthe other. The intolerance reveals that tolerance is completelyabsent and hence complementary pairs antonym.


  1. I saw Timothy at the anniversary party.

Itwas Timothy that I saw at the anniversary party.

Thispair of sentences forms a paraphrase relationship because they havethe same meaning expressed differently.

  1. Jules is Mary’s husband.

Maryis married.

Thispair of sentences has an entailment type of a relationship. This isbecause the second sentence gives details of the first sentence.

  1. My pet cobra likes the taste of chocolate fudge.

Mypet cobra finds chocolate fudge tasty.

Thispair of sentences have a paraphrase relationship because they have asimilar meaning although has been phrased differently.

  1. Vera is an only child.

Olgais Vera’s sister.

Thispair has a contradiction type of a relationship. This is because notraceable relationship between these two sentences.

  1. It is fifty miles to the nearest gas station.

Thenearest gas station is fifty miles away.

Thispair of sentences has a paraphrase relationship because they have asimilar meaning although words have been interchanged.

  1. My cousin Bryan teaches at the community college for a living.

Mycousin Bryan is a teacher.

Thispair of sentences has an entailment type of a relationship. This isbecause the second sentence gives details of the first sentence.


  1. She gave him an icy stare. This metaphor explains the way of looking in terms of observing.

Hegave her the coldshoulder.This metaphor explains the way of treating someone in terms ofresponding to his or her appeal to help.

Heexudes alot of warmthtowards people.This metaphor explains influencing people in terms ofoutpouring himself or his ideas to them.

Theygot into a heatedargument.This metaphor explains hostility in terms of arguing.

  1. He drops a lot of hints. The metaphor in this sentence explains offering assistance in terms of a complex issue that needs to be solved.

Thecommittee pickedupon the issue.This metaphor explains intervention in terms of handlinga matter that required to be considered.

Shedumpsall her problems on her friends.

Althoughhe disagreed, he letit go.This metaphor explains releasing in terms of abandoning.

  1. The eye of a needle. This metaphor explains a hole of the needle in terms of needle’s features.

Thefootof the bed.This metaphor explains a feature of the bed in terms ofthe bed parts.

Thehandsof the clock. This metaphor explains clock’s parts which indicatetime in terms of its operation

Thearmof a chair. This metaphor explains a part of a chair in terms of itsfeatures.

Thetable legs.This metaphor explains the stands of a table in terms of itsfeatures.

  1. This lecture is easy to digest. This metaphor explains the process in terms of understanding.

Hejust eatsupthe lecturer’s words. This metaphor explains the process in termsof audibility.

Chewonthis thought for a while. This metaphor explains a process in termsof absorbing or taking or understanding.

Listento this juicypieceof gossip. This metaphor explains the gossip in terms of its nature.


  1. The man chased the intruder. The man is the agent while the intruder is the theme.

  2. The cat jumped from the chair onto the table. The cat is the theme while the chair is the source and the table is the location.

  3. Aaron wrote a letter to Marilyn. Aaron is the agent, a letter is the theme while Marilyn is the goal.

  4. The President entertained the guests in the Blue Room. The president is the agent while guests are the theme and blue room is location.

  5. Helen mailed the manuscript from Boise. Helen is the agent while the manuscript is the theme and Boise is the source.


Q:Where is the post office?

  1. There are two in town, but the closest one is brand new. Down the road, about 50 yards. This maxim has been violated because although it alludes to the post office, it does not answer the question where.

  2. Past the second left. Also, you shouldn’t stop your car in the middle of the road anymore.

Thismaxim has been violated in that it does not give the direction onwhere the post office is.

  1. I like your car.

Thismaxim is completely violated because it does not answer the questionwhere at all.

  1. I can only tell you that there is either one that way or one this way.

Thismaxim is confusing it lacks specificity.

  1. Not far.

Thismaxim has been violated because it does not express the truth of thepost office location.

  1. There are no post offices in Pittsburgh. You have to go to Beaver to find a post office.

Thismaxim is misleading since there is a post office near while itindicates there are no post offices.


Synonymzeal- enthusiasm


Hypernymfood- carrots

Hyponymcow- goat

Writingas an agent writing has brought together many writers in theconvention.

Hearingas a theme Mary used her hearing sense in detecting the approach ofthe thugs.


Frawley,William, and William Bright.&nbspInternationalEncyclopedia of Linguistics: Vol. 1.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print.