Nanomaterials with DNA and DNA Repair Proteins

NANOMATERIALS WITH DNA AND DNA REPAIR PROTEINS 4

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Nanomaterials with DNA and DNARepair Proteins

Nanoparticles interact with the DNA of livingthings including humans. They are responsible for certain diseaseslike cancer. This they do by causing mitochondrial damage and DNAdamage. However, cells have mechanisms to self-repair. This is key tounderstanding how the nanoparticles used in hindering certaindiseases like cancer can influence the overall health of thepatients. Engineered nanoparticles are very unique in theirmechanical, electrical and catalytic properties. These organisms havebeen increasingly used in commercial applications like health careand the manufacture of consumer products. However, it is a concernthat when these nanoparticles get released form these products intothe environment, they may have some adverse environmental and humanhealth impacts. It is important to understand the genotoxicology ofthese nanomaterials (Nelson,2010). It has been shown throughstudies that the metal-based and the metal oxide-based nanomaterialscan mediate DNA damage in the cells of mammals, those of organisms aswell as those of bacteria. Studies have also shown that copperoxide nanoparticles can induce DNA damage in plants like theagricultural and grassland ones. This results from the formation andaccumulation of DNA lesion in plants resulting from the plants beingexposed to engineered nanoparticles. Some scientists therefore areagainst the use of nanoparticles. Certain engineerednanoparticles have been suggested to have potential beneficial uses.For example, by hindering DNA repair by the creation ofNanoparticle-based materials, cancer spread can be limited. This wasconfirmed by inhibiting the hNEILI1 by AuMS. A comparison in whichFpg in the same family with hNEIL1 but with Zn finger was alsoinhibited by AuMS but there was a differerence. The experiment wasdone by use of C. elegans.They were exposed to 60 nm AuNPs and it was discovered that theyreacted positively (Nelson,2010).

C. eleganswas chosen because it has a genetic sequence 70% similar to that ofthe humans. This similarity makes it possible to monitor thedevelopment, mechanism and progression of human diseases like canceror diabetes. In the study, it was discovered that the most commonlyused nanoparticles as anticancer are potentially unsafe to the healthof people even though the results are notconclusive. Engineered nanoparticles influence DNA damageby inducing it. However, they have also been used to hinder the DNArepair proteins as a method of treating diseases like cancer. Butjust like nanoparticles adversely influence the lives of plants andother organisms, it is expected that the continued use of engineerednanoparticles will potentially harm humans.

Reference

Nelson, B.(2010). Interactions of Nanomaterials with DNA and DNA RepairProteins.&nbspAnalyticalAnd Bioanalytical Chemistry,(398), 613-650.