OccupationOutlook of a Journalist
OccupationOutlook of a Journalist
Analysisof a journalist
Ajournalist researches, gathers and presents data as a news storyusually via daily papers, radios, the web, magazines, and TV.Journalists are expected to present information gathered in awell-rounded and objective way. In this regards, Lynch (2009) andMassey& Elmore (2011)denote journalism as a way of collecting, evaluating, making, andpresenting information and news. Journalism as a field, profession,and business has proliferated vastly over the years since it hasbecome the most efficient channel for people to acquire information.
Journalismcan be differentiated from other products and activities by theparticular identifiable practices and characteristics thatjournalists cultivate. These components not only differentiatejournalism from other facets of communication, but they also defineand make journalism imperative especially in a democratic country.Cotter(2010) argues that historyhas illustrated that the most independent communities have the mostefficient, reliable, and a vast body of information. Journalismexists in various structures and can be separated naturally intoimplicit and transcribed forms of communication. On the other hand,journalism endeavors to enthrall, educate, entertain, and inform,although the composite of objectives may differ considerably from oneunit to another. A large number of journalist are mainly concernedwith solid information, for instance, war, politics, disasters andcrime, terrorism economics or with different parts of current issuessuch as sports, religion, education, technology, race, business, andculture. The stories proffered can be separated into spot news,including occurrences such as natural disasters, accidents, crime anddaily events such as anniversaries budgets and conferences (Lynch,2009). Journalist influences the manner in which people think and perceivepolitical, economic, religious, cultural, and social issues accordingto the presentation of the news.
Accordingto Lynch(2009) and Massey & Elmore (2011,journalism is a vast career with numerous opportunities. Within theinnumerable sections of media such as daily paper, radio, magazines,and television, there are particular undertakings for journalists aswell as occupations. Relying on the size of an institution ajournalist might take one or many of these identities, whichencompass reporters, editor, sub-editor, photojournalist, the newseditor and future writers.
Reportersassemble data and present it in a spoken or written form indocumentaries, news stories or future articles (Wagner& Cornish, 2011).A reporter might opt to work in news organization as a staff, butmight also choose to write stories as a freelancer and sell thestories to a news organization (Wagner& Cornish, 2011).General reporters write all type of news stories. Some journaliststake part in areas such as agriculture, sport or politics (Lynch,2009).Future writers work for magazine and newspaper, writing longerstories, which usually proffer foundation to the news. In smallinstitutions, the reporters themselves will compose future articles.On the other hand, a future editor is accountable for future news.
Sub-editors,ordinarily superintended by chief sub-editors, get the storiescomposed by reporters and structure, edit, condense, and modify themin a standard manner to suit the unique needs of their particulardaily paper, bulletins, magazine, or web page. However, in somecases, the sub-editors gather data themselves and focus on the way astory can best be exhibited to an audience. Lynch (2009) contendsthat journalists usually refer to sub-editors as subs. On the otherhand, photojournalists refer to news photographers who narratestories visually by utilizing photographs or film footage. They workfor wire services, daily papers, television stations, magazines, andother media outlets. They cover newsworthy individuals and occasions,including sporting news, on international, national and local levels.Some work as autonomous specialists, offering their photographs orfilm to different publication after some time.
Aneditor usually settles on an official inference about what isincorporated into the daily paper, magazine or news releases after asub-editor revises, modifies, edits, and condenses the collectedinformation. He or she is in charge of all the content printed orimplied as well as accountable for journalists (Wagner& Cornish, 2011).Editors may have assistants and deputies to help them. The newseditor is accountable for the news journalists. In smallinstitutions, the news editor chooses what stories to cover and whowill take the necessary steps. In bigger firms, the news editor mayhave a representative, regularly called the head of staff, whosespecial occupation is to appoint reporters to the stories selected.
Accordingto the reports of the United States (BLS) Bureau of Labor Statistics,employments for reporters and journalists will decline by 14 percentfrom 2012-2022 while, in the same period, occupations for editorswill diminish by 2 percent while the profession for photographerswill rise by 4 percent. This is primary because of the solidificationamong extensive broadcasting and publishing media outlets, combinedwith a decline in the advertising income that supports those outlets(Casey,2010).The graph below indicates how the trend of journalism will performfrom 2012 to 2022 as well as shows the number of employees in theindustry, assuming the number of employees stood at 50 percent acrossall sectors in 2012.
Rivalryfor journalist occupations is exceptional, particularly inconventional media outlets, for example, extensive metropolitan dailypapers, TV stations, national magazines, and TV systems. The best wayto enter this area is by working in a small organization, beginningas an apprentice or an intern and then rising through the ranks.Casey (2010) and Schudson(2001) assertthat other hopeful prospect journalists may look at new mediaoccupations, delivering content for the Web or remote specializedgadgets. Acting as an independent daily paper correspondent orarticle author is another approach to softening up.
Broadcastand print journalism studies are available at the graduate andundergraduate levels. Many entry-level occupations require a bachelordegree with an employer inclination for mass communication orjournalism. Experience is essential in this field, so enrolling in asystem that offers real-world experiences opportunities with TV,daily papers and radio is necessary (Casey,2010 McQuail, 2008).Various universities and colleges offer bachelor degree program witha focus in health and science journalism, emerging media andphotojournalism. Different classes may incorporate journalisticmorals, inquiry, journalism in society and news reporting. Thecommunity of Professional Journalists recommends that journaliststudents take electives in an assortment of subjects, such as law,accounting, business, and government to remain competitive (McQuail,2008).With a big number of individuals hoping to join journalism, having aformal capability or capacity enhances one’s possibilities andchances to become a professional journalist.
Mostpeople join the journalism industry for various reasons: desire to beknown, desire to write, desire to gain insight and knowledge greatly,as a source of income, and as a profession. Many young women and menassimilated into the profession have one of the intentions mentionedearlier or a combination of the desires from the onset. However,these desires do not constitute a successful journalist wholly sinceone needs to gather particular and special skills and qualities.These skills include reliability, determination, morality,professionalism, and sociability among others.
Conclusively,there are various forms of journalism thus, a person who wishes tobecome a journalist must understand the elements, standards, skills,and capacities required to become a professional journalist. Thecareer has great rewards, but it also has numerous challenges.Nevertheless, journalists must be sociable and dependable since theywork in different sectors of life, gathering and presentinginformation.
Casey,K. (2010). Journalism(2nd ed.). New York: Ferguson Pub.
Cotter,C. (2010). Newstalk: Investigating the language of journalism.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Lynch,L. (2009). Exploringjournalism and the media.Mason, Oh.: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Massey,B. L., & Elmore, C. J. (2011). Happier working for themselves?Job satisfaction and women freelance journalists. JournalismPractice, 5(6), 672-686.
McQuail,D. (2008). Journalism as a public occupation: alternative images.Democracy, Journalism and Technology: New Developments in an EnlargedEurope: the Intellectual Work of ECREA’s.
Schudson,M. (2001). The objectivity norm in Americanjournalism*.Journalism, 2(2),149-170.
Wagner,C. G., & Cornish, E. (2011). Emerging careers and how to createthem. The Futurist, 45(1), 30-33.