Preliminary Literature Review


PreliminaryLiterature Review

PreliminaryLiterature Review

Beyers(2001) provides that there is a vital link between the nursingworkforce research and policy. The Relationship indicates documentedfindings on the current and expected shortages of nurses.Consequently, new legislation has emerged to ensure that there is anincrease in nurses. Specifically, there is legislation aimed toincrease the education of nurses in the effort to improve theirimage. The proposed legislation will only occur if there isconcurrent leadership in the nursing practice arena. There is need tolink both research and policy to practice. The actions further demandthat there be in place various initiatives that aim to strengthenleadership. Besides, nursing leaders and decision makers are requiredto develop new practice models that assist in augmenting theutilization of nurses. Consequently, proper utilization nurses willresult in patient satisfaction. Bayer also calls for the inclusion ofnurses in the decision-making process.

Accordingto Duffield &amp Franks (2001), there have been current changes inthe organization structure of Australian health agencies in the pastfew decades. The changes in the organization structure haveconsequently led to changes in the managerial positions and the roleswithin the hospitals. There is hence the need to prepare nurses forthe administrative posts in the hospitals. The preparation shouldtake notice of the fact that although the educational perspectives ofthe roles have changed, the core foundational knowledge remains thesame. The ability to maintain the core foundational knowledge shouldbe emphasized in nursing training institutions. The changes havevarious critical implications for nursing practitioners. There existdifferences in the key areas of knowledge that are required inspecialist management development for academic programs. Thedevelopment of management education requires a balance betweenskills, knowledge and experience. Consequently, the students shouldseek for sufficient information on the programs that best suits theirdevelopmental needs.

Forrester&amp Griffiths (2001) provide that there is clear worldwide evidenceof a shortage of nurses. Countries such as Australia, USA and Canadaare complaining to find difficulties in maintaining a significantnursing workforce. Consequently, to address the shortage in nurses,there is an ongoing change in staff mix. The staff mix has resultedin changing how health services are delivered. However, it has notrelieved the corresponding ever-increasing burden on the provision ofnursing care. The significant impact has been on the staffresponsible for the care and how such care should be organized. Theimpact is well highlighted by three factors. First, the alteration ofthe staff mix due to the introduction of the various levels ofskilled and inadequate care providers. Second, it is necessary toincrease the number of nurses required and enhance part-timeemployment. Third, the authors consider that it is important toexpand the role of nurses.

McGillisHall, ET al (2001) observe that nursing staff mix has greatimplications on the clinical staff, patients and hospitaladministrators. Staff mix has direct effects on the patients’health outcomes. Further, the authors assert that the jobsatisfaction among the clinical staff influences positive and qualityhealthcare services. Supportive institutions are salient ingredientsthat ensure clinical staffs carry out their duties efficiently. Inorder to realize effective health care services, the stakeholders inthe health care industry must generate intervention measures thatwill enhance the achievement of positive outcomes. Nursing staff mixhas proven to be a better strategy in enhancing job satisfaction andquality of healthcare services.

Intheir study on nurse-staffing levels and quality of healthcareservices, Needleman, Et al. (2002) argue that healthcare servicesrevolve around assisting the process of service delivery and harnessthe institutional structure. Staffing is a prime ingredient forpositive health outcomes in the society. They consider thathealthcare institutions are subtle, thus the decisions made by theleaders and junior staffs are crucial in the achievement of therequired objectives. The role of clinical staff in supporting thecreation and maintenance of a healthy work environment by theclinical leaders cannot be underestimated. The authors observe thatpoor clinical staffing shortage has unpleasant effects on theinstitutional capacity to handle patient needs and the provision ofquality services. The quality of healthcare services is largelyjeopardized as the current supply of the nurses and other clinicalstaffs cannot meet the increased demand. The patient population isput at high risk when there is a shortage of staffs. The patientsrequire utmost care from the clinical staffs, thus any shortage ofpersonnel impacts negatively on the nature of the services theyreceive. With shortage of clinical staff, it is difficult to identifythe areas that require professional improvement in the health sector.

Brien-Pallas&amp Baumann (1999) observe that theglobe has seen increased demand for health care services.Unfortunately, the demand has overstrecthed the available careproviders heance leading to shortage. They observe that the shortageis not necessarily contribuited by the shortage of trained clinicalstaff but by lack of elaborate strategies to inform the healthcaresystem.The two note that human resources practices in a clinical settingshould be flexible to benefit both individual and institutions. Poorstrategies affect the efficiency and capability of an organization tohandle diverse challenges. Nonetheless, Brien-Pallas &amp Baumann(1999) consider that there exist opportunities in terms enhance theperformance of clinical staff and adoption better technologies.


Beyers,M. (2001). Nursing Workforce: A perspective for now and the future,JONAHealthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation, vol 3, no 4, pp109-113.

Brien-Pallas,L.L. &amp Baumann, A. (1999). The State of Nursing Practice inOntario: TheIssues, Challenges and Needs, NursingEffectiveness, Utilization and OutcomesResearch Unit, Toronto.

Duffield,C. &amp Franks, H. (2001). The role and preparation of first-linenurse managers inAustralia: where are we going and how do weget there? Journal of NursingManagement (UK), vol 9, pp 87-91.

Forrester,K. &amp Griffiths, D. (2001). So where will the buck stop? Liabilityand the move for amore diverse health care workforce, Journalof Law and Medicine, vol 9, pp 159-163.

McGillisHall, L., Doran, D.I., Baker, G.R., Pink, G.H., Sidani, S.,Brien-Pallas, L. &amp Donner,G.J. (2001). The impact ofnursing staff mix models and organizational change strategiesonpatient, system and nurse outcomes, University of Toronto, Canada.

Needleman,J., Buerhaus, P., Mattke, S., Stewart, M. &amp Zelevinsky, K.(2002). Nurse-staffinglevels and the quality of care inhospitals, New England Journal of Medicine, vol 346,no 2, pp1715-1722.