Question 1

Question1

Soundchange in linguistic:

  1. English triathlon (dialect)triath[ə]lon

Soundchange: Assimilation in manner of articulation

  1. Latin turtur English turtle

Soundchange: Nasalization

  1. Pre-Spanish *venré Spanish vendré ‘I will come’

Soundchange: Assimilation/Epethensis inserted consonant -d-

  1. Italian mundo Sicilianmunnu ‘world’

Soundchange: Total assimilation in Sicilian

  1. Old French cire [ts]French cire [s] ‘wax’

Soundchange: Voicing assimilation

  1. Latin pān- French pain [ɛ]̃ ‘bread’

Soundchange: Nasalization in French

  1. Latin mulgēre Italian mungere ‘to milk’

Soundchange: Voicing assimilation

  1. Latin pacare [k] Italian pagare ‘to pay’

Soundchange: Total assimilation in Italian

  1. Old Spanish nido Spanish nido [ð] ‘nest’

Soundchange: Frication (consonantal weakening in Spanish)

  1. Latin ōrnāmentum Old French ornement [ə] ‘ornament’

Soundchange: Nasalization

Question2

  1. Sound changes: consonant deletion and vowel weakening

Proto-Tupí-Guaraní Guaraní Gloss

  1. jukɨr jukɨ ‘salt

Soundchange: Consonant deletion

  1. moajan moajã ‘push’

Soundchange: vowel reduction –a- to ã and consonant deletion -n

  1. puʔam puʔā ‘wet’

Soundchange: vowel reduction –a to ā and consonant deletion -m

  1. meʔeŋ meʔẽ ‘give’

Soundchange: vowel reduction –e- to ẽ and consonant deletion -n

  1. tiŋ tʃı ̃ ‘white’

Soundchange: vowel weakening

  1. potiʔa potʃiʔa ‘chest’

Soundchange: vowel reduction/weakening

  1. tatatiŋ tatatʃĩ ‘smoke’

Soundchange: Vowel weakening

  1. kɨb kɨ ‘louse’

Soundchange: consonant deletion

  1. men mẽn ‘husband’

Soundchange: vowel reduction

  1. Phonological rule notation:

Thefollowing phonological rule is followed when a word fromProto-Tupi-Guarani language is change to Guarani a consonant deletesif it occurs at the end of a word, unless the next word starts with avowel.

C→ Ø / ___ # C

Anotherphonological rule observed in this language change is: Do notpronounce /i/ if it is followed by a consonant in coda position or ifit is word‐final.

/r/→ Ø / ___ {C }

  1. Order:

Object-root-tense

Question3

  1. In Acadian French they use consonant fricatives /ʃ/ when a vowel follow a consonant /t/ while in European French they use voiceless dental fricative obstruent / ø/ and voiced velar nasal sonorant / ŋ/

  2. Sound change: Devoicing, this is because the voicing depends solely on position and on assimilation with adjacent consonants.

  1. Phonological rule notation:

/i/→ Ø / ___ {C }

Question4

Semanticchange

Word Earliermeaning

  1. Moody ‘brave’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic degeneration/pejoration

Therange of meaning of the word moody has been decreased to only referto ‘a sudden bout of gloominess or sullenness’.

  1. witch ‘male or female sorcerer’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic narrowing (specification, restriction)

Therange of meaning of the word witch has been decreased to only referto a female sorcerer

  1. accident ‘an event’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic narrowing

Themeaning of the word accident has been narrowed to mean an unintendedinjurious or disastrous event.

  1. carry ‘transport by cart’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic widening/generalization

Inold English the word carry meant ‘transport by cart’ but now itmeans ‘support the weight and move’

  1. shrewd ‘depraved or wicked’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic elevation/amelioration

InOld English the word shrewd meant ‘depraved or wicked’ but now itmeans ‘showing or having sharp powers of judgment astute’

  1. ordeal ‘trial by torture’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic elevation/amelioration

InNew English the word ordeal means ‘a very unpleasant and prolongedexperience’.

  1. picture ‘a painted likeness’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic widening/generalization

InOld English the word picture meant ‘a painted likeness’ but nowit means ‘a vivid description in writing’.

  1. undertaker ‘one who undertakes’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic narrowing

Originallythe word undertaker meant ‘one who undertakes’ but now it means‘one who undertakes the exceptional task of preparing bodies forburial’

  1. hussy ‘housewife’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic degeneration/pejoration

Inold English the word hussy meant ‘housewife’, it became to mean‘an impudent or immoral girl or woman’.

  1. box ‘a small container made of boxwood’

Typeof semantic change: Semantic widening/extension

Therange of meanings of the word box has increased so that the word canbe used in more contexts than were appropriate before the change

Question5

  1. Proto-Romance form for each set of cognates

Spanish

Sardinian

Romanian

Proto-Romance

Gloss

a.

vida

bita

vită (ă = [ə])

*vita

‘life’

b.

si

si

ʃi

*si

‘yes’ ‘and’

c.

riso

rizu

ris

*ris

‘laugh’

d.

miel

mele

miere

*miele

‘honey’

e.

hierro

ferru

fier

*fierru

‘iron’

f.

piedra

pedra

piatră (ă = [ə])

*piedra

‘stone’

g.

hierba

erva

iarbă (ă = [ə])

*ierba

‘grass’

h.

oso

ursu

urs

*urso

‘bear’

i.

roto

ruttu

rupt

*rutto

‘broken’

j.

lecho

lettu

*lecho

‘bed’

Question6

  1. Afrikaans (South Africa)

InAfrikaans (South Africa) language the distinction between close andopen mid vowels is reduced in favour of nasal open mid vowels.&nbsp

  1. Squamish (Washington state)

InSquamish the nasal vowel system is limited to mid vowels /ə

a/only.

Question7

InMaltses Arabic and Awji (northern New Guinea) languages nasal vowelsare not only few in number, but are also extremely rare: there areonly two recorded lexical items with nasal vowels in this twolanguages. The vowel systems in these two languages comply with theimplicational universal in that, the number of contrastive nasalvowels is less than that of oral vowels.&nbsp

Question8

Morphologicalcharacteristics

  1. Siberian Yupik

Morphologicalcharacteristics in Siberian Yupik language is agglutination.In this Language complexwords are formed by stringing together morphemes without changingthem in spelling or phonetics.

  1. Latvian

Morphologicalcharacteristic in Latvia language is fusion.Latvian is a fusional language since it overlaysmany&nbspmorphemesto denote syntactic, grammatical, or semantic change. .

  1. Japanese

Morphologicalcharacteristic in Japanese language is agglutination.In this Language complexwords are formed by stringing together morphemes without changingthem in spelling or phonetics.

Question9

Malagasylanguage uses Verb-Object-Subject (VOS) word order system. There aresix theoretically possible basic word orders for the transitivesentence: subject–object–verb (SOV), subject–verb–object(SVO), verb–subject–object (VSO), verb–object–subject (VOS),object–verb–subject (OVS) and object–subject–verb (OSV). Themajority of the world`s languages are either SVO or SOV, with a muchsmaller languages but still significant portion using VSO word order.The outstanding three arrangements are remarkably rare, with VOSbeing a little more common than OSV, and OVS being a lot rarer thanthe two preceding orders.

REFERENCE

Typeof semantic change Retrieved from:

http://homepage.ruhr-uni-ochum.de/Silke.Hoeche/Aspects%20of%20Language%20Change/types_of_semantic_change.htm

DouglasC. Walker, 1984 The Pronunciation of Canadian French Retrievedfrom:

http://people.ucalgary.ca/~dcwalker/PronCF.pdf

Linguistics115 Spring 2006 Week 3: Comparative method and linguisticreconstruction Retrieved from:

http://www.ucd.ie/artspgs/langevo/compmethweek3.pdf

LNGT0101Introduction to Linguistics Retrieved from:

http://sites.middlebury.edu/linguistics101/files/2012/10/class10_phonological_rules.pdf

Homework6: Historical Linguistics &amp Typology

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