Relationship between working environment Job satisfaction of Employees A case study of Amazon warehouse In new york Reg No

Relationshipbetween working environment Job satisfaction of Employees: A casestudy of Amazon warehouse In new york

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Dates

DECLARATION

This work has not been presented previously for any awards. I confirmthat it is my own work

Signature Date

This dissertation has been submitted with my approval as Supervisor

Signature Date

DEDICATION

This dissertation is dedicated to my family whose support has gonebeyond academia.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Gratitude can be likened to a duty that has to be paid.

It is for this that I express my gratitude to all the sources whocontributed to my completion of this dissertation. First, I amgrateful to my supervisor for his constant and diligence guidance inthis project. I will forever be indebted to him for all hisencouragement, advice, patience and kindness. Second, this work wouldnot have been a success without the contribution of my family. Amgrateful for their moral and material support throughout the course.I will always and forever remember their values and good deeds theyhave deposited in my life.

Special thanks to my colleagues and classmates. They have been therefor me and their constant encouragement cannot be ignored. Equally, Iwish to express my gratitude to the Amazon Warehouse Fraternity. Yourassistance in providing me with the data has made this work asuccess. Finally, while the preparation, design and data collectionbears strong influences from diverse individuals, the responsibilityfor all shortcomings are wholly mine.

Abstract

This paper was s study of workingenvironment and its related effects to job satisfaction among theorganizational employees. The case study company was Amazon Warehousein America. The study ascertained the factors related toorganizational climate that affects the job satisfaction of theemployees. These factors enhanced the design of the conceptual model.The independent variables were divided into three physicalenvironment (temperature, ventilation, noise and infrastructure),mental environment (fatigue, stress, boredom, policy making,supervision and boredom), and social environment (attitudes,behavior, status abd employee clusters). The dependent variable wasjob satisfaction.

The study sample was made up offive Amazon warehouses. The choice of the warehouses was based onlocation and size. The target population comprised of junioremployees cold room, shelves and packaging attendants, accountants,technicians and drivers, and senior employees managers andsupervisors. Random stratified sampling method was applied to obtaina sample of 100.

The main research instrument usedfor the study was questionnaire. Both close-ended and open endedquestions were used. The Five Point Likert Scale was applied. Thisincluded 1: strongly disagree, 2. Disagree, 3. Neutral, 4. Agree, 5.Strongly Agree. Out of the 100 questionnaires administered, only 83were completely. Descriptive and exploratory research designs wereapplied in the research. Data collection was done using primary andsecondary methods. The main primary method applied was questionnairewhile the secondary methods applied included newspaper, journals andinternet.

The data collected was analyzedusing excel application. The analyzed results were presented incharts and graphs.

The findings of the research showedpositive significance in work environment and job satisfaction. Also,the management seemed to be critical in ensuring that the workingenvironment is conducive for the employees. It was observed thatsatisfied employees tend to be happier and will deliver in theirroles. Job satisfaction is reflected directly in employee loyalty,effectiveness, efficiency, commitment level and sense of identity.

Tableof Contents

DECLARATION 2

DEDICATION 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 4

Abstract 5

Chapter One 9

1.0. Introduction 9

1.1. Background of the Study 9

1.1.1. Background to Amazon Warehouse 10

1.1.2. Working Environment at Amazon Warehouse New York 10

1.2 Problem Statement 12

1.3 Research Objectives 13

1.4 Research Question 13

1.5. Conceptual Framework 14

1.6 Hypotheses 15

1.7 Significance of the study 16

2.2. The Concept of Job Satisfaction 18

2.3. Job Satisfaction in a Warehouse Environment 19

2.4. Employee Loyalty (Direct Variable) 21

2.5. Physical Environment (Indirect Variable) 22

2.6 Mental Environment (Indirect Variable) 22

2.7. Social Environment (Indirect Variable) 22

2.8. Relationship between variables 23

2.8.1. Physical Environment and Employee loyalty 23

2.8.2. Mental Environment and Employee Loyalty 23

2.8.3. Social Environment and Employee Loyalty 24

3.0. Methodology 26

3.2 Research Design 26

3.2.1 Descriptive research design 26

3.2.2. Exploratory research design 27

3.3. Study Population 27

3.4. Determination of the Sample Size 27

3.5. Sampling Techniques 28

3.6. Sampling Frame 28

3.7. Research Instrument Design 28

3.8. Pretesting Pilot Study 29

3.9. Division of Questionnaire 29

3.10. Unit of Analysis 30

3.11. Data Collection Method 30

3.11.1. Primary Data Collection 30

3.11.2. Secondary Data Collection 30

3.12. Validity and Reliability of the Research 31

3.13. Data Analysis and Presentation 31

3.14. Multicollinearity 31

4.3 Respondent Profile 32

4.3.1. Gender and Age 33

4.3.2. Salaries 33

4.3.3. Years Worked with Amazon 34

4.4 Analysis Procedure 34

4.5 Mental Environment 34

4.6 Physical Environment 37

4.7 Social Environment 39

4.8. Management Issues 42

4.8 Result of Hypotheses Testing 44

4.9. Summary of Hypotheses Testing. 45

5.0. DISCUSSION, LIMITATION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 46

5.1 Introduction 46

5.2 Discussion on 1st Research Question 46

5.3 Discussion on 2nd Research Question 47

5.4. Discussion on 3rd Research Question 47

5.5. Discussion on 4th Research Question 48

5.6. Implication of the Study 48

5.6. Limitation and Recommendation for Future Study 49

5.7. Conclusion 49

References 50

Appendix 54

Questionnaire 54

ChapterOne

  1. Introduction

The current business environment is America is quite competitive.Therefore, in order to deal with the trends, most businesses havebeen changing their internal operations with their main focus beingthe teamwork, modularity, productivity and expanded functionality.Furthermore, the understanding of the global business has triggeredthe need to remain competitive in terms of human assets.

The employers are in constant quest for opportunities that can enablethem maximize the productivity of their employees as well as proveeffective working environment. According to Boro et al. (2001),companies must realize the need of good working environment so thatthey can be able to increase productivity, retain quality personneland maintain a high competitive edge. The increased focus onproductivity of employees results in an increase in employee stress.This implies that the increased pressure of employees to producehighly and associated pressures involved therewith can be very riskyto the business. Therefore, any effort to reduce employee stress andimproved working conditions is critical for the success of anybusiness.

The current research sought the interrelationship between workingenvironment and job satisfaction of the employees in an organization.The case study company was Amazon Warehouse in New York which majorlystores electronics, books, tools and equipment..

1.1. Background of the Study

The employee satisfaction is determined, to a greater extent, by theworkplace environment. The working environment comprises of all theaspects that act and react in the mind and body of an employee. Theresearch on organizational psychology shows that the mental, socialand physical environment in which an employee works translatesdirectly to job satisfaction, productivity and employee retention.

An ideal working environment should ensure ease of effort as well aseliminate all causes of worry, anxiety and frustration. Any effort tominimize fatigue, congenial, boredom and monotony enhances employee’sjob satisfaction. Normally, a work environment comprises of amechanical, economic and psychological aspects. Any effective workenvironment makes the employees happier in their roles, and thisultimately influences the growth of an organization.

The concept of a working environment is comprehensive in nature,including the social, psychological and physical aspects that makesup a working condition. A work environment can result to eitherpositive or negative impacts on welfare of the employees. In simpleterms, a work environment can be defined as the environment wherepeople work. In its wide category, a work environment incorporatesthe physical scenery like equipment, heat and noise, job fundamentalssuch as complexity, task and workload, extensive business featuressuch as history and culture, and any other business background suchas workers relation and industry setting.

Nevertheless, all aspects of a working environment are verysignificant for the resulting job satisfaction of the employees.

      1. Background to Amazon Warehouse

The map below shows the various locations in United States. This casestudy analysis was done Amazon New York.

      1. Working Environment at Amazon Warehouse New York

It is said that the Germany hashigh likelihood of dismissing any strike by the unions on pay rise inAmazon warehouses (Du Brin, 2014). The warehouse presents the modelof modern innovation. Amazon among the biggest employers with over100,000 employees. Nevertheless, the way the company treats theemployees has become a very big issue currently. The company shouldtherefore tackle its head-on before it destroys the public image andbecome “Walmart of the Web”.

Emails received by Eldelwich (2015)reveals the series of brutal life that the employees undergo insidethe Amazon Warehouses. Temporary employees have to toil through thefreezing conditions. According to some of the emails, most of theemployees skive rest and lunch breaks since the warehouses are toobig and may take several minutes of walking to travel to and from theworkplace.

The Morning Call, a Pennsylvania’spublication, revealed a series of stories about the Amazonwarehouses. Some of the reports revealed extremely hot conditionswhere the workers fainted and were carried on stretchers byparamedics. In terms of compensation after an employee gets sick, theAmazon’s agency in charge of unemployment for temporary workersdenies them the pay. According to Mother Jones, any employee whodared shed a tear during work time would be fired. According to theAmazon’s management, there is no need of keeping an emotionalperson, especially in such an economy (Edem and Lawal, 2006).

An anonymous account reveal thatthe trainings that employees undergo in Amazon can be liked to onebeing in prison. He noted

&quotMy initial thought was this is prison, the comparisons wereobvious. I felt like asking anyone sitting by me or standing in linenext to me `so, what are you in for?` It would have been a completelyappropriate question.”

Another major factor cited out inAmazon as far as working conditions is involved include bias in thehiring process. It was noted that Amazon mostly employs temps, and assuch, the quality of work stay and pay remains relatively low.Despite the fact that the workers in Amazon warehouse are paid $11per hour which is far much higher than the federal level of $7.25,the temp employees have a high likelihood of publishing theirnightmare tales at Amazon than the media relations at Amazon canrebut (Evans, 2007).

Amazon warehouses are mostlylocated in suburban or semi-rural areas. This makes most employeesfeel exploited, not just a mere accidental side effect of making theends meet by saving some money. The operating income in Amazon in2014 was just 1% of the total revenues. For Walmart, the operatingincome was 6%. This reflects a thinner margin for Amazon whencompared to Walmart. Hence, Amazon appears to be more incentivized toexploit the employees than Walmart.

Amazon should make efforts to getahead of this. Building Amazon as taken a lot of time and hard work.The CEO, Jeff Bezos has been key in making Amazon a success. It iscritical to note that building may take a lifetime but demolishingcan take seconds. It can just take less than a year for Amazon brandto be turned into a chiseling byword. This is the time that themanagement should act before things ran out of control (Edem andLawal, 2006).

1.2 Problem Statement

Recent trends in job satisfaction has received a considerableattention in many businesses. Studies by Bowen and Ostrof (2004)reveal that job satisfaction is a significant factor as far as themorale, turnover, regularity in work and productivity of theemployees is concerned. Cockburn and Perry (2004) indicates that thelevel of effort and dedication of employees is greatly affected byperceived satisfaction experienced.

Many businesses have failed in understanding the importance of theworking environment to the job satisfaction of their employees(Fourie, 2004). This renders an organization very weak internally inits capacity to introduce innovative products as well as outshinetheir competitors. An employee should be considered as a criticalasset in achieving the mission and the vision of the business. Inorder to meet the standards set by the organization, the workingenvironment should allow the employees work freely without anyrestraint.

Nevertheless, research shows that many organizations lack propersystems to establish effecting working environment for theiremployees. The working environment differs based on the type of theorganization and the nature of the products they deal with. Forinstance, a metal smelting factory requires proper air conditioningand constant medical checkups on the parts per million of themetallic elements inhaled (Ford, 2002).

The recent publications by Gawker revealed some brutal series ofemails that describe life inside the Amazon warehouses in America. Itwas revealed that temporary employees had to toil through thefreezing conditions with no lunch breaks or rests since walkingacross all the warehouses take several minutes due to the huge sizesof the warehouses.

Also, the Pennsylvania’s morning call publication has shown how theworkers normally faint in Amazon warehouses due to lack of airconditioning. The workers were being carried on stretchers.Thereafter, the Amazon Warehouse was compelled to install airconditioning. On the other hand, the workers who fell sick never getcompensated and if they burst into tears after losing the job, thenthe management tells them that their positions are required by over16 people. Therefore, it would be unrealistic to keep a person who isemotional, particularly in that economy. These amongst other factorshave led to poor working environment and very low job satisfactionamong employees in Amazon Warehouse.

Therefore, this research aimed at addressing the issues of workingenvironment and how it affect job satisfaction of the employees, withAmazon Warehouse being the best case study.

1.3 Research Objectives

This research was based on the objectives below

  1. To study the working environment of Amazon warehouse organization employees

  2. To examine overall satisfaction level of Amazon warehouse organization employees

  3. To study the factors effecting working environment Amazon warehouse organization employees

  4. To analyze the impact of working conditions at Amazon warehouse organization employees

1.4 Research Question

This research was based on theresearch questions below

  1. How is the working environment at Amazon warehouse?

  2. To what extent are the employees at Amazon Warehouse satisfied in their delivery of the services?

  3. What are the major factors effecting working environment Amazon warehouse organization employees?

  4. Does working conditions influence the job satisfaction of the Amazon warehouse organization employees?

1.5. Conceptual Framework

This research relied on the“Conceptual Model of Organizational and Personal factors andOutcomes” by Moos 1994 in developing a work environment scale.According to the model, a work environment comprises of threeworkplace perspectives. These include the social informationprocessing, sociotechnical perspective and human relations approach(Moos, 1976). The human relations approach entails the qualityrelationships among the management and employees. Sociotechnicalperspective encompasses the work stressors arising from nature of theperformed tasks and organization of the workgroups. The socialinformation processing entails appraisal of work situation by theemployees.

Therefore, the model presents thejob satisfaction and work environment and emphasizes that the workstressors faced by employees normally originates from their workingenvironment. The framework mainly relies on understanding of theworking climate that assumes extraordinary characteristics of thepeople. The work environment scale developed by Moos measures thework climate using three domains of individual’s involvement withthe environment, support and cohesiveness, personal growth thatencompasses work pressure, task orientation and autonomy subscales,and finally, the third domain of system maintenance changes thatinclude the basic dimensions of innovation, physical comfort, controland factors of clarity.

Working Environment

Job Satisfaction

1. Physical Environment:

  • Air Conditioning

  • Temperature

  • Noise

  • Ventilation

2. Mental Environment

  • Supervisor relationships

  • Involvement in decision making

  • Involvement in policy making

  • Equality in employment

Employee Loyalty

  • Sense of Identity

  • Increased Loyalty

  • Increased Performance

  • Increased commitment

  • Increased sense of identity

3. Social Environment:

  • Behaviors

  • Attitudes

  • Status

Conceptual Framework, Source:Researcher’s 2015

1.6Hypotheses

In order to get answers for theresearch questions, the below the hypotheses were used.

H1: There is a positive significance between the working environmentand Amazon warehouse organization employees

H2: There is a positive significance between overall satisfactionlevel and Amazon warehouse organization employees

H3: There is a positive significance between factors effectingworking environment and Amazon warehouse organization employees

H4: There is a positive significance between working conditions atAmazon warehouse organization employees

1.7 Significance of the study&nbsp

This study aimed at identifying the influence of the workingenvironment on employee satisfaction. As such, this study attempts tocontribute significantly to the strategic theory development throughtesting of the effects of working environment on employee jobsatisfaction. The study will influence the efforts in coming up withworkplace practices and environment that promotes employee loyaltyand consequent job satisfaction and retention.

This study is critical as it will highlight the main factors that theemployers, Amazon Warehouse being one of them, should adopt in orderto enhance job satisfaction among the employees. The management ofdifferent businesses and diverse organizations will find thisresearch helpful in improving the morale of their employees andconsequently bring about job satisfaction. An employee who achievessuccess in employment and whose needs are well met in workplace wouldbe always be happy and will strive to maintain excellence in his/herrole. Furthermore, the study will be critical in many organization asit recommends adoptable strategies and policies that helps inmitigating the organizational related issues of job satisfaction(Hill, &amp Charles, 2008 Rao, &amp Subba, 2010).

The current study is significant in the areas outline below.

  • Amazon Warehouse, New York: The findings will assist the management in Amazon re-examine their workplace environment and the effects to the employee loyalty. This study will enable the Warehouse determine if their employees are contented with current working conditions and establish the avenues through which improvements can be made to ensure that the warehouse achieve greater employee satisfaction and high retention.

  • Warehouse business operators: The warehouse operators can understand their strengths and weaknesses in handling workplace environment and come up with ways of promoting greater employee loyalty through enhancement of the working conditions. Knowledge of conducive workplace environment will benefit all the warehouses in any place in the world in planning their workplace environment initiatives and taking the initiatives that are critical towards achievement of organizational goals, which include greater employee loyalty through promotion of better working environment.

  • Policy makers: the results have high likelihood of influencing strategy makers in seeing the effects of not embracing conducive workplace environment as a significant factor that can affect the moral position of the company in terms of employee loyalty and retention.

  • Broadened knowledge: employees are the heart of the company and work environment act as the topmost driver in enhancing job satisfaction and employee loyalty. Therefore, this study adds facts that are linked to working environment and employee satisfaction. Ultimately, the study makes a noteworthy contribution to the topic influence of working environment on employee satisfaction. This extends the corporate thinking on facilitation of good workplace environment as well as on management literature on employee satisfaction.

Chaptertwo2.0.Literature Review&nbsp2.1Introduction

This chapter presents a review of literature onworking environment and employee job satisfaction which translatesdirectly to employee loyalty. The review of literature was based ondirect and indirect variables. The direct variable identified duringthe research was employee satisfaction. The indirect variables thoseinfluencing direct variable (Employee Loyalty) include physicalenvironment, mental environment and social environment. This formedthe basis of the conceptual framework.

2.2. The Concept of Job Satisfaction

The employee satisfaction has been over the years been amongst one ofthe major research areas, especially amongst the organizationalpsychologists (Denisson, 2006). This implies that organizationsshould be concerned about the satisfaction of their employees,normally portrayed through the extent of focus on employees.

From a humanitarian perspective, human beings deserve fair treatment.Job satisfaction reflects the extent of treatment of the employees bythe organization (Dwyer, &amp Robert, 2007 Appleyard, &amp Dennis,2005). The differences among the units in an organization reflectspotential trouble spots. Managers in most organizations are requiredto share the concerns of job satisfaction amongst the employees.Their assessment of job satisfaction should be guided by consideringthe welfare of their employees paramount.

People like working and in most cases, if well treated, workingbecomes part of their lives. On the other hand, there are people whofind work being unpleasant and the work only because they lackalternative(Ferrell, 2005Burack, &amp Elmer, 2008). It is critical to note that thesatisfaction level affects the organization and its workers. It istherefore obvious, from the employees’ point of view that employeesyearn for fair treatment. On the other hand, the organizationbenefits from satisfies employees who always give quality work andhave very high productivity. The satisfaction of the employees istherefore the main driver to employee retention and productivity.Employees who are satisfied are precondition for increasingresponsiveness, productivity, customer service and quality (Denizer,2008).

Level of job satisfaction depends on extrinsic and intrinsicmotivating factors, social relationships and supervision quality. Anybehaviour that helps a firm be successful happens when employees getmotivated and feel commitment after the job they are in gives then ahigh level of satisfaction (Dibbie, 1999). Typically, manyorganizations measure satisfaction of the employees on rolling orannual survey. This may include involvement with decision makers,recognition for doing good job and support level amongst others.

2.3. JobSatisfaction in a Warehouse Environment

The working environment in a warehouse is very critical. Researchshow that 65 percent of total labor cost entails the warehouseoperating budgets. Nevertheless, many employees have constantreported active disengagement from their work. According to PatKelly, the CEO of Labor development Group, customer and market demandnotwithstanding, the quality and efficiency in a warehouse is mostlyapples poorly to the tasks at hand. The major recipe to drawing outbest performance and enhance employee satisfaction is by aligning thewarehouse workers motivation with the management objectives (Neal, &ampCathy, 2007 Kaponya, &amp Paul, 2009).

This implies that that the workers need to be engaged in a processthat makes them enjoy their work. The leading third party and privatewarehouse operators have been developing strategies for maximizingthe productivity while at the same time ensuring that the workersremain satisfied.

The productivity in warehouse is not necessarily dependent on themotion studies and exhaustive time. Whenit comes to warehouse productivity, what you measure improves. Butmeasuring and improving warehouse productivity does not have toinvolve exhaustive time and motion studies. Achieving the six sigmainventory accuracy and levels of perfect order, then the keyPerformance Indicators are vital. The management should understandwhat drives the performance in the warehouse as well as determine thefailures and bottlenecks. Employees should be involved inidentifying solutions and alternatives. The involvement of theemployees in decision making ensures successful implementation andbuy-in (Quester and Pascale,2007).

The labor standards are acritical component when it comes to warehouse job satisfaction. Inthis case, all the functions should be measured and actualperformance recorded. There is greater need to engage the workers andagree on specific processes or steps that can help them improve. Thisshould thereafter become standards. Amongst the major areas ofconcern in any warehouse environment include working shifts,operating equipment and reconfiguration of the warehouse to operatemore effectively. This calls for a complete tear down and theholistic rebuilding of the functions in the warehouse. Thepay-for-performance efforts in any warehouse must be tightly coupledto the safety and quality performance (Peter,2006).

Fourie (2004) in response to theincreased number of employee shortage at one of the Warehousescarried out a study to investigate the major factors that makeemployees stay or leave their profession. About 3500 employeesresponded to the survey by filling in the questionnaires while 30employees were interviewed in order to augment the data collected.The qualitative data from interviews and quantitative data fromquestionnaires revealed similar results. The findings showed that jobdissatisfaction is greatly related more to the workplace environmentrather than the profession itself. Some of the characteristics ofwork dissatisfaction that were related to work environment includedthe support by administration, inadequate autonomy and denial of afeeling of self-worth.

Various studies have revealed thatthe environment at warehouse affects job satisfaction of theemployees (Quester, &amp Pascale, 2007 Taylor, &amp John,2007). Job satisfaction normallykeeps the employees in their profession. Retention of employees implybetter quality services for the customers and increased savings asthe business would not be compelled to spend a lot of money inorienting new employees.

The study by Friedlanderand Margulies (2008)revealed that workplace setting is very critical as far as jobsatisfaction is concerned. The results showed that dissatisfiedworkers will in most cases focus on the components of their work thatthey have more control rather than offering quality services. Some ofthe components of their work include relationship with patients,peers and colleagues.

Other studies have recommendeddifferent factors or components in workplace environment that affectthe job satisfaction of the employees. According to Fieldsand Blum, (2007), theparticipative management style plays a major role in promoting jobsatisfaction. This includes good communication, autonomy, controlshared by all members and the decision making process thatincorporates employees at all levels. According to this analysis, thevariables identified to have strong effect on job satisfaction ofemployees include communication, autonomy and peer fairness.

2.4.Employee Loyalty (Direct Variable)

Employee loyalty refers to the commitment is employees to the successof the organization and the ultimate belief that the decision to workin their organization is the best (Neal,2007). . In his book of Loyalty Effects, Fred Reichhelddefines loyalty as the inner drive and willingness to make a personalsacrifice or investment to strengthen a relationship. In simpleterms, loyalty can be described as a process where certain attitudesplay a major role in influencing a certain behavior.

The business world has of late undergone through major changes,especially in the workforce domain. In the past, a hired employeesused to embrace their jobs and were used to be devoted to theiremployer. Nevertheless, this has gradually changed over time inadvent of globalization that has resulted to company relocations,restructuring and downsizing. As such, most employers have broken therules with mutual obligations being reconsidered. The lifetimedevotion and employment has become a mirage and many people are inconstant quest for better working conditions and salaries (Quester&ampPascale, 2007).

Obtaining trust and loyalty is becoming more challenging. Loyalty canbe described in terms of internal or external dimensions. Theemotional attachment represents its internal dimensions and entailsthe feelings of affiliation, commitment and caring. This internaldimension must be appealed to and nurtured. On the other hand,external dimension encompasses the way loyalty is manifested. Thisentails the behaviors that portray the emotional component and is thedimension that tends to drift greatly. Nevertheless, many are thetimes that the management feel that they are completely loyal totheir employees and the organization has some policies into place toreflect that though the employees never understand what themanagement is doing (Hill, &amp Charles, 2008 Kaponya, &amp Paul,2009).

Loyalty signifies the sentiment of attachment or the devotion of aperson to particular course and is normally expressed in both actionand thoughts, and tends to strive for identifying with the interestsof the object. According to Ford (2002), commitment by an employee isthe degree to which the employee identified with the goals andobjectives of the organization their work for. Fourie (2004) notesthe three types of commitment normative, affective and continuance.Normative commitment entails the commitment of an organization,affective commitment is the emotional attachment, involvement andidentification towards achievement of organizational goals, whilecontinuance commitment entails the willingness to continue workingwith the organization.

Employee loyalty have been aid to be directly influenced by physicalenvironment, mental environment and social environment.

2.5.Physical Environment (Indirect Variable)

Physical environment entails basic human needs like hygiene,accessibility of the building and safety. The needs within thephysical environment are met by application of current buildingstandards to decision making and architectural designs. This alsoincludes appropriate lighting, especially for the screen based work,standard furniture, enclosed rooms for collaborative work andmeetings

2.6Mental Environment (Indirect Variable)

The psychological comfort is as a result of feelings of belonging,control and ownership over the workplace. Research shows thatpsychological environment links the psychosocial aspects withenvironmental design as well as management of working space throughconcepts of privacy, control and territoriality (Neal, &amp Cathy,2007 Ferrell, 2005).Normally, a sense of territorial is associated with feeling ofownership and belonging while privacy is associated with need to havecontrol over the accessibility to others.

2.7.Social Environment (Indirect Variable)

This entails issues of status, empowerment and salaries. Empowermentand status through promotions increases the opportunity of employeesto take part and their voices considered during decision making. Thisreduces unpredictability and novelty and provide a sense of controlthrough opportunities to participate in designing decisions. Peter, &ampPaul (2006) argue that uncontrollability over workspace acts as ademotivator leading to helplessness.

The workspace stress can also be inferred to issues of coping up withbehaviors. An employee may desire to change the workplace environmentfor better and managing somatic and subjective components ofstress-related emotions. This is majorly contributed by the workplaceculture. Maladjustment to the workplace cultures can trigger subtleconflicts with the superiors and co-workers. Also, office gossips orpolitics can induce stress.

2.8.Relationship between variables2.8.1.Physical Environment and Employee loyalty

Various studies have developed ways of measuring how physicalenvironment influences the performance in an organization. Theconcept of physical environment entails any factor that placesunnecessary demands on employees in spite of their adjustment andadaptation behaviors (Peter, &amp Paul, 2006 Burack, &amp Elmer,2008 (Dwyer, &amp Robert, 2007).Environmental fit is a conceptthat has been integrated in such a way to reflect the elements withinthe physical environment that tends to affect how people work.Ergonomic research approach has played a major role in studying theworkplace features that commonly affect people and causes directresponse by the human body. Some of these features include lighting,noise, air conditioning and office furniture amongst others.

Floor configuration and layout of the furniture have been shown toinfluence satisfaction of employees to a greater extent. The densityand height of the workstation, as well as accessibility of work andfile storage influences the satisfaction of the individual workersand affects the overall performance of the team. Studies have shownthat many office workers tend to be uncomfortable in open officeconfiguration and tend to prefer private enclosed workspaces.Additionally, some aspects of psychological comfort like privacy andterritoriality are greatly affected by special layouts where locationand office size is associated with status (Peter, 2006).

According to Taylor and John (2006), stressors within the workenvironment adversely affects the performance of the employeesespecially when prolonged or are of high intensity, and may slow downthe ability of an individual to understand and process thepredictability and number of signals that increase the complexity ofa task. The potential stressors include architectonic details,special organization and ambient conditions.

The issues with special organization include the layouts and relatedopenness and accessibility of the resources like equipment, washroomsand meeting rooms. Other factors like temperatures and comfort levelsubstantially influence the health of the workers. In a nutshell, thephysical work environment stimulates innovativeness and creativityamongst the employees (Quester, &amp Pascale, 2007 Taylor, &ampJohn, 2007).

2.8.2.Mental Environment and Employee Loyalty

Leap and Crino (2008) definedpsychological environment workspace that accords feelings ofbelonging, control and ownership. This include supervision,involvement in decision making and equality in employment amongstothers. According to Leather et al.(2008), employee loyalty is highly dependent on companyadministration and policy as they have strong influence on personallife, security and status of the employees.

Organizational administration andpolicy acts as a guide that spells out responsibilities as well asprescribing the actions taken under certain circumstances (Thomas &ampSimon, 2004). Policies can be expressed or implied, can be in oralform or written, but either way, the leadership in any organizationis required to ensure consistent application of the policies to avoiduncertainty, feelings of preferential treatment or bias (Riley andMichael, 2006).

On the other hand, supervision hasdirect influence of employee loyalty. Supervision processes arenormally designed to encourage employees to participate in roles thatsteers the organization towards meeting the goals and objectives(Ruchi &amp Surinder, 2014).The workplace climate is supposed to encourage employees update theirskills so as to give the best in their careers. Whenever thesupervision is good, the employees always perceive their supervisorsas good, effective and competent and will give their best towardsensuring that they meet their goals. Poor supervision results whenthere is unfair treatment as well as failure in corresponding toproblems affecting employees (Rollinson et al., 2008).

2.8.3.Social Environment and Employee Loyalty

The social environment is a very critical factor of employee loyalty.This include status, salaries, promotions and empowerment. Statuscan either be formal or informal. Formal status entails the attemptsto differentiate extent of formal or informal authority accorded tothe employees by the organization, such as use of symbols whichreflect position of a person in an organization. Some of the statussymbols include job titles such as Director or even reserved parkingspaces. Most of the status symbols are made so as to remind themembers within the organization of their roles, and this reducesuncertainty and promotes stability to the social order. Informalstatus entails prestige given to individuals with unique characterthat is not formal to the organization. This is majorly dependent onachievement, such as employee of the month (Erramilli and Rao, 2003).

Ford (2002) consider receiving ahigher status as a symbol of success. People tend to feel successfulwhen they attain a higher status, especially when there is genuineachievement. This is normally tough and requires constant challenge,failure to which the employees results to frustration and stagnation.Lower level status may not affect productivity due to minimalopportunity granted for creativity. High job levels gives employees agreater pool of new challenges.

On the other hand, promotionspromote employee loyalty to a greater extent. An employee moving fromone level to the next will always seek to achieve the set goals andwill value colleagues who are competent. A higher status in theorganizational hierarchy makes the employee feel honoured and willtend to work harder failure to which their experience burnout andbecome dissatisfied (Ferrell, 2005).

Salary is the actual money receivedby an employee for the services rendered or job done. Kinzl et al.(2005) note that low salaries are a major contributor todissatisfaction and results to frustration among the workers. Thiscalls for the need to properly inform the employees on anycompensation plans to avoid instances where an employee feels thatthe pay is unfair. It is of paramount importance to promote equityamong the employees with similar qualifications and in the sameposts. In many cases, employees perceive their salaries as the directreflection of how the management views them. According to Jasper andBuble (2006), the reward system in any organization is greatlyrelated to job satisfaction, hence, the need for employers to maketheir employees understand the reward system in order to eliminatemisunderstanding and dissatisfaction.

Unclear salaries and reward systemspropagates unfair practices and conflict in the workplace. Pooruncompetitive salaries are a major cause for discontent andunhappiness amongst the employees. Organizations should make effortsto offer competitive salaries to avoid demotivating their employees.In many cases, employees would leave their organization to go toothers that offer more competitive salaries (Levesque &ampJoseph, 2012).

ChapterThree

  1. Methodology3.1 Introduction

The objective of the current study was to experimentally study theworking environment and job satisfaction among the employees in anorganization. This chapter highlights specific methodologies andprocedures that will be used in the study. Face-to-face interviews,questionnaires, engagement with key informants, reports and analysisof relevant literature will be used to collect data for thisresearch. Primary data was collected using semi-structured andstructured interviews through questionnaires, while secondary datawas collected from newspaper, journals, internet, books and otherrelated research papers.

3.2 Research Design&nbsp

Research design can be defined as the overall strategy chosen tointegrate the different components of the study in a logical andcoherent way, thereby ensuring that all the research problems areaddressed (Dunning, 2008). It comprises the blueprint for the datacollection, measurement and data analysis.

This study adopts a cross-section research design with descriptiveand exploratory designs. A cross-sectional in normally applied wheninformation to be collected is to be done once (Adams, 2007). This isjustified in that the research adopted one time observation thatinvolved ultimate and proximate variables critical for the study.Exploratory and descriptive designs are examples of thecross-sectional design that were adopted for this study.

The descriptive and exploratory designs are mainly used especiallybecause of their focus on phenomena of interest, which, in thecontext of this paper was to identify the interrelationship inworking environment and job satisfaction of the employees in anorganization.

3.2.1 Descriptive research design

According to Flick (2002), a descriptive research design entailsdescribing the current status of identified variables in order toprovide systematic information about that variable. This researchdesign will be especially critical in the current research becausethe study will involve interaction with the participants during datacollection. A descriptive research is normally carried out before anexperiment to know the specific things that need manipulation andwhich should be included in the experiment

3.2.2. Exploratory research design

Huysamen (1996) consider exploratory research as the type of theresearch concerned with the phenomena under scrutiny. The designhelps in pursuing the factors influencing the effect, cause or thosethat are related to the phenomena. The design is expected to enhancethe establishment of whether the working environment affect the jobsatisfaction.

3.3. Unit of Analysis

The unit of analysis can be definedas the primary entity that is being analyzed (Flick, 2002). Thetypical units of analysis include individuals, groups, artifacts orsocial organizations. In the current research, Amazon warehouse inNew York was used as unit of analysis. The choice of the warehousewas majorly influenced by the availability of diverse groups ofrespondents from both the senior and subordinate levels at awarehouse environment. The warehouses are normally characterized bylong working hours and very busy schedules. This implies that workingconditions have a significant influence to the job satisfaction ofthe employees in a warehouse.

3.4. Study Population

The study population where the sample was drawn consisted of 10Amazon Warehouses located in US. Judgmental sampling technique wasapplied to get 1 area, which was determined to be New York. This wasbecause the warehouse in New York is amongst the largest warehousesin US, hence appropriate for the data collection due to diversegroups of employees.

The population comprised on cold room attendants, shelves attendants,drivers, technicians, supervisors and managers. The choice of therespondents both seniors and juniors was mainly aimed at ensuringcomprehensive and unbiased feedback.

3.4. 1. Determination of the Sample Size

The selection of respondents in any research is among the mostimportant tasks in any project (Kitchin and Tate, 2000). This studywas based on a sample frame of Amazon warehouses in New York. Theselection of the warehouse took into consideration employees workingin various departments such as accountants, shelves attendants,packaging attendants, drivers, technicians, cleaners, supervisors andmanagers.

3.4.1. Sampling Techniques

This study used the stratified sampling technique. This was mainly ofthe nature of population as well as the behavioral patterns of theirprofessions. For instance, drivers were likely to be on transit.Stratified sampling is a type of probability sampling method wherethe research is divided into different strata or subgroups and finalsubjects selected proportionally from the different strata. Accordingto Silverman (2005), stratified sampling is important in any researchas it increases the statistical efficiency of the research andenhances adequacy of data for different strata analyses. Stratifiedsampling was used in this study to ensure that all the employees fromvarious departments were well represented.

The distribution of the population is as shown in the table below.

Respondents

Total

Shelve attendants

20

Packaging attendants

20

Cleaners

17

Drivers

15

Technicians

7

Supervisions

8

Managers

13

Total

100

Source: Researcher’s Survey data, 2015

3.5. Data Collection Method&nbsp

This is the process of gathering relevant data for analysis to makeinformed judgments. According to Adams (2007) there are two mainapproaches to data collection, primary and secondary data’. Datagathering was pursued in line with the objectives of the study. Withthese data different functions were analyzed by use of excel togenerate data comparison tables, percentage analysis and graphs. Datacollected concerned the satisfaction in job in relation to the jobenvironment.

3.5.1. Primary Data Collection

Primary data was collected through questionnaires and interviews.This data was critical in quantification, graphing and charting ofthe information to show potential patterns of salient points by meansof measures and metrics on the level of employee satisfaction andwork environment.

3.5.2. Secondary Data Collection

Secondary data was collected from relevant literature previouslyreviewed by peers and other academic resources scholarly andacademic journals, magazines and newspapers. These data was used asbenchmark since it had already been authentically and accuratelyvalidated[ CITATION Kit00 l 2057 ]. The secondary data facilitatedthe determination of the questions in research questionnaire andprovide a platform for the collection of primary data.

Survey research method was completed by distributing copies of thequestionnaire to the respondents. The questions for the seniormanagement in all the five warehouses used one structuredquestionnaire and this was mainly aimed at obtaining uniformresponses. A structured questionnaire allows respondents alternativeoptions to choose from based on their close approximates.

3.6. Research Instrument

Questionnaire was the main research instrument used for the currentstudy. Most of questions used were adopted from the questionnaire byRassouw (2003) on job satisfaction and work environment, with somemodifications to fit the context of the current research. The designof the research was in such a way that information on larger numberof employees was obtained from responses from a smaller number ofrespondents the sample chosen to represent all Amazon Warehouses’employees.

The steps below were followed in performing the design of theresearch:

  1. Pilot study was conducted in order to establish reliability and adequacy of the questionnaire tool in wordings, question sequencing, content and bias. This provided a means of brainstorming and testing the relevance of questionnaire to the warehouse environment

  2. Unstructured interviews were conducted with the managers and supervisors after the pilot study. This was meant to ascertain that all questions in the study were easy and simple to comprehend

  3. The final stage entailed the administration of the adopted questionnaire to the attendants, drivers, technicians, packaging attendants and accountants.

3.7. Data Analysis

Dataanalysis refers to the process of inspecting, organizing, modellingand transforming data in order to highlight required information,support decision or suggest conclusion [ CITATION Ada07 l 2057 ].Analysis of the data was carried out using excel. Percentages wereused to determine the extent by which the employees feelsatisfied/dissatisfied with their workplace environment.

3.8. Pilot Study

Pilot study was conducted before the main study on limited a smallnumber of respondents of the same population intended for theeventual project. The study aimed at investigating the feasibility ofthe study to help in detecting any flaws in instruments of datacollection, such as length of questions and time spent per aquestion.

During this testing, 10 questionnaires were administered to thesenior management and a pilot study conducted. According to Basit(2010), 5-10 questionnaires are enough to help in identifyingproblems with the questionnaire.

ChapterFOUR4.0.results and findings&nbsp4.1Introduction

This chapter provides the resultsof the findings of the research. The main objective of the researchwas to study the influence of work environment on job satisfactionamongst the employees. The case study was the Amazon Warehouse in NewYork. The main respondents being the cold room and shelvesattendants, packaging attendants, cleaners, drivers, technicians,managers, accountants, supervisors.

4.2Response Rate

The sample population comprised of100 respondents. Out of the hundred questionnaires administered, only83 of them were returned while appropriately and fully filled. Thisrepresented a response rate of 83%.

4.3 Respondent Profile

The profile of the employee wasobtained from the data collected using section C of the questionnaire(See Appendix). The data collected was analyzed based on gender, agebracket, salaries and the years worked with Amazon Warehouses. Theresponses are presented in the figures below.

4.3.1. Gender and Age

Out of the 83 respondents, 53 weremales while 30 were females. In terms of age bracket, the highestnumber of employees were between 34 and 41 years, followed by thosebetween 26 and 33 years. The smallest number of respondents were over42 years, and from the statistics, these were mainly the managers.

4.3.2. Salaries

It can be seen that the largestnumber of respondents, 30, earn below $1,000 while the lowest numberearn above $3,000. This may imply the need to evaluate the level ofsatisfaction based on the salaries given.

4.3.3. Years Worked with Amazon

It can be seen that the largestnumber of respondents, 40, have worked with Amazon warehouses forbetween 1 and 5 years. This is followed by a significant number, 30,who have worked with Amazon Warehouses for less than a year. It canbe observed that those who have worked with the Amazon Warehouse forthe longest time are very few.

4.4 Analysis Procedure

All the data obtained from therespondents was collected and compiled for analysis. Excelapplication was thereafter applied in analysis. From the conceptualframework, employee satisfaction was the dependent variable whilePhysical environment, mental environment and social environmentformed the independent variables. This was to seek whether jobsatisfaction was dependent on the working environment.

4.5 Mental Environment

In this section, the researcherwanted to determine the effectiveness of the leadership andsupervision in the warehouse. The respondents were to rate theiracceptance level of the questions posed by the research.

Support of Employees by theleadership

The chart below presents the rateof agreement of employees on how they feel the management hassupported them.

Itcan be observed that the greatest percentage, 53% and 42% of therespondents agree that the management in Amazon does not support theemployees. Only a small proportion, 1% strongly disagree and 1%disagreed. 3% of the respondents were not sure whether the leadershipsupported the employees or not.

Inclusion of Employees inMeetings

In this question, the researcherwas seeking to determine whether the employees are included in themeetings by the management, or at least one of the representative.

It can be observed that 60% and 36%of the respondents disagreed that the management does include themduring the meetings. The remaining 4% either agreed or were not surewhether the management include them during meetings.

Inclusion in Policy Making

In this question, the researchersought to determine whether the leadership engage their employeesduring policy making. The results are presented in the figure below.

The results show that the greatestpercentage of respondents (70% Strongly Disagree, 25% Disagree)disagreed that they are being included during decision making. Only2% showed that they are being included during policy making, while 3%were neutral in their response.

It can be observed that thegreatest percentage, 94%, of respondents (82% Strongly Disagree, 14%Disagree) feel that they are not included during policy making. Only2% (1% agree and 1% strongly agree) considered to be included inpolicy making.

4.6 Physical Environment

This section sought for theeffectiveness of the physical environment to the working conditionsin the warehouse. The research uses the questions to determine howwell the employees are satisfied with the conditions in which theywork.

Ventilation

It can be observed that the 69respondents (39 strongly disagree, 30 disagree) work in the warehousethat is not well ventilated. Only two respondents felt that thewarehouses they work in are well ventilated.

Lighting

From the analysis, it can beobserved that the lighting condition in some warehouses were perfect. The greatest number of respondents (25 agreed and 22 stronglyagreed) that the lighting was good. However, 10 respondents stronglydisagreed while 14 disagreed that the lighting system in their areaswas perfect. Only one person chose not to give the answer.

Noise Level

It can be observed that thegreatest number of respondents disagreed that the warehouse is freeof noise (34 strongly disagree, 33 disagree). Only 4 respondentsagreed that their warehouse if free of noise.

Personal Protective Equipment(PPEs)

Results revealed that 63respondents (43 strongly disagree, 20 disagree) disagreed to be giventhe PPEs in their jobs. Only 6 respondents admitted to have beengiven the PPEs.

4.7 Social Environment&nbsp

In this section, the researchersought to determine the influence of social environment on employeejob satisfaction. Some of the major social factors consideredincluded employee attitudes, behaviors, cluster formation, salariesand status/promotions.

In an ideal setting, there is highexpectations that the promotions are based on promotions. However, inthe Amazon Warehouses, the promotions are mostly not based on merit.This is well presented in the figure above. The greatest number ofrespondents (27 strongly disagree, 37 disagree) disagreed that thepromotions in their workplaces are based on merit. Only sevenrespondents (4 strongly agree, 3 agree) agree that the promotions arebased on merit.

Salaries

In this question, research soughtto determine whether people with the same qualification and doing thesame job are paid the same. The responses are as shown below.

The findings showed that thegreatest number of respondents (34 strongly disagree, 32 disagree)that the people with same qualification and doing similar job arepaid the same. Only 5 respondents believed that the employees in samejob and with same qualifications are paid the same.

Time-out and Breaks

In this question, the researcherwas seeking whether the employees are allowed time for breaks,motivation, or even rest. The responses are as shown below.

It can be observed that 65respondents (39strongly disagree, 26 strongly disagree) disagreedthat they are allowed enough time for personal growth, rest andbreaks. Only 6 respondents (4 agree, 2 strongly agree) agreed thatthey are allowed time out from job.

Employee behavior

In this question, the researcheraimed at getting the opinion on the behavior of the employees towardstheir supervisors. The responses are presented in the figure below.

The findings show that the greatestnumber of respondents disagree (27 strongly disagree, 39 disagree)that the relationship of the employee towards their supervisors isimproving. Only 4 respondents agreed that the relationship iscommendable.

4.8. Management Issues

In this section, the researcher wasseeking to determine the effort of the management in promoting goodworking environment for their employees. Among the major factorsconsidered included trainings, funding of the employees to attendseminars and workshops, engaging their employees during policy makingand offer promotions to their employees based on performance. Out ofthe 83 respondents, 11 of them were in management 5 managers and 6supervisors.

Trainings

It can be observed that 8 out of 11respondents considered not to be offering trainings to theiremployees (4 strongly disagree, 4 disagree) while only 2 respondentsheld trainings for their employees.

Funding for Trainings

The researcher sought toinvestigate the contribution of the management in funding theiremployees to attend seminars and workshop, majorly for careerdevelopment. The responses are as shown in the figure below.

The greatest percentage of therespondents (55% strong disagree, 18% disagree) believed that theirestablishments were not doing enough in terms of funding theiremployees to attend seminars and workshops.

Engaging Employees during PolicyMaking

In this question, the researcheraimed at determining whether the management do engage their employeeswhen making decisions.

It can be observed 8 out of 12respondents do not engage their employees while making policy. Only 2respondents engaged their employees during policy making.

In the open ended questions, themanagers and supervisors felt that the management in Amazon Warehousewas not doing enough to ensure that the employees were satisfied.Nevertheless, most of them said that plans were in place. Forinstance, two managers noted that air conditioning was beinginstalled in their warehouses.

When told to rate their workingenvironment, most managers considered the working environment to begood. This was in contrast with the answers given by most of theemployees. When the researcher probed further, it was evident thatthe Amazon Warehouses were in worse conditions and they were doing alot in terms work place environment improvement.

When asked whether they felt thatthe management was doing enough in empowering employees towardsdevelopment of their professions, only two managers were empoweringtheir employees towards developing their career by giving them studyleave and paying half of their fees. This was commendable.

4.8 Result of Hypotheses Testing&nbsp

For hypotheses one and two, thePearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to measurethe degree of relationship of the variables. This is as shown in thetable below.

&nbsp

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Strong Disagree

1

Disagree

0.450114

1

Neutral

-0.07795

0.223415

1

Agree

-0.77082

-0.68216

0.038086

1

Strongly Disagree

-0.86213

-0.78364

-0.16612

0.709632

1

For hypotheses three and four, themultiple regression was used to test and conduct the analysis. Amultiple regression measures the nature of relationship anddetermines the contribution of the variables to the relationship.

Regression Statistics

Multiple R

0.82058

R Square

0.673352

Adjusted R Square

0.265041

Standard Error

2.595597

Observations

10

A correlation of determination of0.67 reflects a relatively strong correlation between the variablesof workplace environment. Ideally, R2should be/closer to one.

On the other hand, the ANOVAanalysis revealed a statistically significant correlation inworkplace and environment conditions

ANOVA

&nbsp

df

SS

MS

F

Significance F

Regression

5

55.55151

11.1103

1.649117

0.324120679

Residual

4

26.94849

6.737121

Total

9

82.5

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

4.9.Summary of Hypotheses Testing.

The analysis revealed a positive significance between the workingenvironment and Amazon warehouse organization employees. Also, theoverall satisfaction level had a statistically positive significanceamong the employees in Amazon warehouse.

This implied that the workplace environment plays a major role ininfluencing the employee job satisfaction. This confirmed all thefour hypotheses.

ChapterFive

5.0. DISCUSSION, LIMITATION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1Introduction

This chapter presents a discussion of the analysis, conclusion,limitation, recommendation and proposal for future research. This isin line with the data that was analyzed and reviewed.

5.2 Discussion on 1st Research Question

  1. How is the working environment at Amazon warehouse?

It was found out that the working conditions at Amazon Warehouse werenot very conducive for working. The temperatures in most warehouseswere extreme, either too hot or too cold to survive in. it was notedthat some employees even used to faint due to high temperatures,while those working in cold rooms and areas with extremely lowtemperatures were not given special clothing.

The lighting system was considered to be not badly off, though therewere respondents who believed that the lighting system was notcompletely perfect. Lighting is considered to be among the majorfactors which should be considered in any working environment.Lighting can influence the motivation, wellbeing and performance ofemployees.

The lighting in a warehouse like Amazon is supposed to meet therequirements outlined in Occupational Health and Safety. Themanagement should not only consider the aesthetics but should alsoconsider the impact to the workers. Any shadowy or glare areas cantrigger a person enter into a dangerous zone or even cause seriousinjuries like eyesight problems due eye strain. Therefore, planningfor right workplace lighting is critical. Creating a well-litatmosphere in necessary in any work space.

On the other, it was found out that the air conditioning in Amazonwas very poor. The air conditioning is critical in any workingenvironment. For instance, an area producing a lot of heat mayrequire protection of the warehouse from heating and this can be donethrough insulation. On the other hand, if the work place is verycold, the management should consider installation of curb heaters adintroduce warm clothing for the employees.

Another workplace variable that seemed to affect the employees inAmazon was extreme noise level. Noise can be at times annoying andcan easily disturb one’s concentration. Prolonged exposure to highnoise levels can increase the heart rate, health effects, hearingloss and anxiety. The management in Amazon should formulate policiesthat enforce noise control measures.

5.3 Discussion on 2nd Research Question

  1. To what extent are the employees at Amazon Warehouse satisfied in their delivery of the services?

In this question, the researcher sought for the satisfaction level ofthe employees in deliver of their services. It was found out that thegreatest percentage of the employees are never satisfies with theirjob. In the literature review, it was revealed that some employeesburst out in tears after losing their jobs. One of the authorsclaimed that he gotten a lot of emails from the employees in amazonwho were claiming that the working conditions were very tough andextremely cold. Also, one of the employees in Amazon noted that thetraining that a person undergoes in amazon can be likened to thetrainings in prison. Furthermore, the data analysis revealed thatthe relationship between the employees and their supervisors wascontinuing to deteriorate.

All these and many others are just some of the few highlightsrevealing how dissatisfied the employees in Amazon were. The deliveryof satisfactory services to the customers is paramount in anybusiness. Nonetheless, the contribution of the employees cannot beoverlooked. Research shows that the satisfaction of client reflectsthe performance of the employees. Good employees will always lookforward to be held accountable. The sense of purpose for any employeein any business is providing excellent services.

5.4. Discussion on 3rd Research Question

  1. What are the major factors effecting working environment Amazon warehouse organization employees?

It was found out the factors affecting the working environment can beclassified in three major categories. First is the physicalenvironment that entails the conditions such as appropriate lighting,ventilation, air conditioning and noise level amongst other factors.Second is the mental environment that encompasses any factors thataffect the wellbeing of an employee. These include supervisors’behaviors, inclusion of the employees in decision making,consideration in policy making, fatigue and boredom. Third is thesocial environment that entails behaviors, attitudes, salaries,promotions and status.

All these three factors physical, mental and social, were identifiedto play the greatest role in shaping the environment to which theemployees work. Nevertheless, it was clear that when any of thesefactors is overlooked, then the employees cannot deliver in theirroles and their motivation reduces greatly.

5.5. Discussion on 4th Research Question

  1. Does working conditions influence the job satisfaction of the Amazon warehouse organization employees?

The study found out statistically significant relationship betweenthe working environment and job satisfaction. A work environment wasidentified to comprise of different factors (See the conceptualframework). The satisfaction of employees was depicted by the levelto which the employees were feeling fulfilled and contented withtheir jobs. The workplace environment was considered to have a verygreat influence to the employees. When employees get satisfied, thedirect reflection is normally felt in their delivery of services andperformance.

When employees get promoted, their feel that their status is beingrespected and feel motivated. Any harassment of any kind is a recipefor dissatisfaction. For instance, when employees in Amazon are notcompensated when sick, they kept complaining. This is well reflectedwhen the media even highlights the plight of employees in Amazon.Despite the fact that the warehouse paid considerably higher whencompared to other employees, we see writers condemning such actsarguing that paying employees a lot of money might not be thesolutions. People need more than just money good working conditionsare paramount.

5.6. Implication of the Study

Working environment greatlyinfluences the employee satisfaction. Therefore, any organizationthat employee people remain a viable candidate for this research.Every employee requires good working conditions. A satisfied employeewill always deliver in his/her role. The management should makeefforts to ensure that the employees are satisfied throughformulation of adoptable policies that promote good workingenvironment for the employees.

5.6. Limitation and Recommendation for Future Study

Some of the limitations identifiedduring the study included the concentration of workers in fivewarehouses only. This meant that the results obtained were limited interms of validity and reliability. Therefore, the study acts as aplatform for other research in the field of work environment andemployee satisfaction. Furthermore, this research serves as an eyeopener for the scholars to conduct research in other organizationsapart from warehouses. This is because any institution with employeeswill always face issues of employee satisfaction and workingconditions.

5.7. Conclusion

Job satisfaction can be describedas a complex concept under the influence of several factors. Thispaper aimed at studying the work environment and job satisfaction inorganization employees, with Amazon warehouse acting as the casestudy company. The research showed statistically significancerelationship in the working environment factors and the jobsatisfaction amongst the employees. It is paramount that anyorganization take into consideration the working conditions to ensurethat the employees are well protected from anything that may causephysical, mental or social harm. This is eventually result toincreased job satisfaction among the employees, and consequentincreasing performance and profitability of the company.

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AppendixQuestionnaire

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SECTION A: QUESTIONS TO ALL THE JUNIOR EMPLOYEES

1

2

3

4

5

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MENTAL ENVIRONMENT/HYGIENE FACTORS

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

NEUTRAL

AGREE

STRONGLY AGREE

1

Management and leadership style in the warehouse do not support the employees

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2

The management always hold meetings with the employees to discuss issues affecting them

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3

There are well defined policy on employee-employer relationship

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4

The leadership is very effective in communicating the policies to the employees to avoid issues with uncertainty

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5

Employees are incorporated during the decision making process and their opinions considered

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6

The management provides feedback on performance and evaluation of employees

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7

I am satisfied with the leadership and supervision of this warehouse

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8

My supervisors should try and change to the better from the way they treat employees

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9

There are amicable ways of handling issues of salaries and leave days

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10

Employees only work for only the time stipulated with rests and breaks well catered for

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WORKING CONDITIONS/PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

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11

The warehouse I work in is well ventilated

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The air conditioning is perfect

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All the shifts are well catered for in terms of temperature extremes

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14

The lighting condition is perfect

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15

The warehouse is free of noise

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16

All employees are given PPEs

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Emergency response system in the warehouse is perfect

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Trainings on safety are done on regular basis

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SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT/STATUS

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19

There are no employee clusters in the warehouse

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Promotion is based on merit

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People with the same qualification and doing same jobs are paid the same

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22

Employees` attitude towards their jobs is improving

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23

Employees are allowed to form unions

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24

Employees are allowed time for personal growth e.g. motivational meetings

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25

Behaviour of employees towards their supervisors and other employees is commendable

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SECTION B: OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS

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Managers and Supervisor

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We hold trainings for our employees

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we engage the employees during policy making

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We fund our employees to attend seminars/workshops

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We hold promotions every year

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Promotions are based purely on merit and performance

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32. Do you feel the management is doing enough to ensure that employees are satisfied?

Yes

No

Explain…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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33. How can you rate your work environment?

Very Bad

Bad

Good

Excellent

34. Do you feel the management is making efforts towards professional development of their employees

Yes

No

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SECTION C

BIO DATA

  1. Please tick your rank level

Attendant (Warehouse/Packaging/Shelve)

Driver

Technician

Accountant

Supervisor

Manager

  1. How many years have you been working with the Amazon Warehouse?

Less than 1

1-5

6-10

10+

  1. What is your gender?

Male

Female

  1. What is your age bracket

18-25

26-33

34-41

42+

  1. Which of the following monthly income level applies to your monthly income?

Below US$ 1000

1001-1500

1501-2000

2001-2500

2501-3000

Over 3000