Report on Micro-Teaching Class

Reporton Micro-Teaching Class

Reporton Micro-Teaching Class

Englishis regarded as a West Germanic language initially spoken in beforetime medieval England (Clarke, 1980). It is the language regarded asofficial for almost sixty sovereign states. Throughout the world withthe help of British kingdom, the contemporary English extended aroundfrom 17th to the mid-20th centuries. Despite the differences inaccents as well as the English dialects in different parts of theworld, the English speakers have been able to converse with oneanother successfully. Today, English remains a widely spoken languagewhose speakers are spread out on each and every continent. The use ofEnglish as an official language in a formal setting, it has becomenecessary for the language to be known by those aspiring to work,travel or study the language in a literature context.

AnESL Intensive English Language Program was formed for the non-nativeEnglish speakers planning to pursue an education at an Americanuniversity or wish to better their English for an individual orprofessional reason. The Graduates of Intensive English LanguageProgram in colleges participate in student government and have beenaccepted into bachelor’s and master’s degree programs in theuniversities. Those who return from the ESL programs mostly secureemployment opportunities in their professional choices (Hong-Nam &ampLeavell, 2006).

TheESL program provides a course in advanced speaking class. The coursehelps students who want to learn The English language forprofessional or eve personal purposes. The general purpose or goal ofthis particular course is to enhance students’ overall speakingabilities as well as fluency. Each lessons’ aim is to ensure thatthe students will be able to express feelings using different tensesas well be able to give a short, informal presentation on thedifferent phases of cultural shock in class. A cultural shockregarded as the individual disorientation that a person may feel inthe course of experiencing an uncommon lifestyle due to immigrationor a visit to a new country. It is perceived as travelling to asecond type of life or moving between the social surroundings. As inour case, the different nationalities of students makes thisoperation important (Engber, 1995). This course activity includes awarm up where the students’ background knowledge is activated andvocabulary where the students get to understand and use vocabularyrelated to the concept “culture shock.” The other parts of thecourse include express feelings where students express as well asshare feelings using different tenses and also ask questions andculture shock phase where they get to understand different culturesand also make a presentation of the phases. A pronunciation phase andevaluation where they are all assessed, and a quick review of whatwas taught plus homework is given out by the end of the day. Thedifferent teaching materials include the basic tools such as board,pens and task sheets, projectors, YouTube video, sticky posts,vocabulary list.

Thelesson plan is organized in such a way that a day’s lessoncontributes a lot in the following lesson, therefore, creating aprogressive learning effect among the students. The warm up brings tothe students and understanding of their culture where a muted YouTubevideo on culture shock is presented on board using a projector, atopic they later undertook in their next lesson to get a deeperunderstanding. The vocabulary list is used in the third lesson toprepare the students for their lesson on the expression of feelingsas they use the various vocabularies to test and also they will havethe capacity to apply the vocabulary associated with the concept ofcultures. The pronunciation phase then makes sure that the tenses andvocabularies are speaking eloquently and correctly. The students thenpresent what they learned to each other using the sticky notes byspeaking of the different cultures as an extension of the cultureshock phase but now with the incorporation of other lessons. Later aquick evaluation of their understanding of the point, as well as aquick overview of what was taught, is done. The day then ends bygiving the students homework as further evaluation of theirunderstanding (Long &amp Porter, 1985).

TheESL French department is a good source of inspiration and motivation.Their mode of teaching is similar to that of the English department.The method just as I the English department involves the progressiveteaching of the lessons. Therefore, the sequence makes each lessonequally important. The students, as a result, keep maximum attentionduring every part of the lesson through writing short notes that areprobably necessary for the lesson that follows.

Aresearch by Oxford (1995) on the ESL English program including theteaching mode, lesson plan, and timing proved that the system is veryinteractive, enlightening, involving and less tiresome. The researchinvolved examining the performance capabilities as well as thequalification of teachers. The findings proved that the teachersavailable in the system were professionals in their fields and wereable to produce professional students who are spread all around theworld. The student’s performance was also studied by checking theirinvolvement in the class and outside as well as their exam reports.Also, some of the graduates were evaluated to test their capabilitiesregarding speech and context of their work such as literature reviewsof the students. The research, therefore, is a perfect proof showingthe effectiveness of the teaching programs and activities involvingboth the students and teachers.

References

Clarke,M. A. (1980). The short circuit hypothesis of ESL reading—or whenlanguage competence interferes with reading performance. TheModern Language Journal,64(2),203-209.

Engber,C. A. (1995). The relationship of lexical proficiency to the qualityof ESL compositions. Journalof second language writing,4(2),139-155.

Hong-Nam,K., &amp Leavell, A. G. (2006).Language learning strategy use of ESLstudents in an intensive English learning context. System,34(3),399-415.

Harklau,L., Losey, K. M., &amp Siegal, M. (Eds.). (1999). Generation1.5 meets college composition: Issues in the teaching of writing toUS-educated learners of ESL.U.S.A: Routledge.

Long,M. H., &amp Porter, P. A. (1985). Group work, interlanguage talk,and second language acquisition. TESOLquarterly,19(2),207-228.

Oxford,R. L., &amp Burry-Stock, J. A. (1995). Assessing the use of languagelearning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of theStrategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). System,23(1),1-23.

Report on Micro-Teaching Class

REPORT ON MICRO-TEACHING CLASS 11

Reporton Micro-Teaching Class

RashaAlghamdi&ampFaten Alqahtani

Universityof South Florida

Reporton Micro-Teaching Class

Spokenlanguage is of paramount importance to the second and foreignlanguage learners. As such, the learners put enormous effort in theirmastery of English language speaking skills. Students who are in aposition to speak the English language fluently are considered ashaving succeeded in their English courses. There is great emphasis onthe oral skills in a majority of the EFL and ESL courses. This iscoupled with the presence of numerous speaking and conversation textsin both the libraries and the markets. However, one of the greatestaspects under debate is the methodology that should be applied inteaching the oral skills. There are two major strategies which areproposed by both the teachers and the text books where a direct orindirect method can be used. The direct method involves the variousaspects of oral interaction such as turn taking. On the other hand,indirect strategies would employ features such as group work whichencourage oral interaction.

Thisspeaking lesson plan is addressed to students studying in an ESLinstitution in the United States. The students are from differentnationalities and they are in the US to increase their Englishlanguage proficiency. This ESL Intensive English Language Program isformed for the non-native English speakers planning to pursue aneducation at an American university or wish to better their Englishfor an individual or professional reason.

TheESL program provides a speaking and conversational course. The levelof the students in which the lesson is planned, is advanced, so thenthey can show a higher level of mastery of the spoken Englishlanguage. The general purpose or goal of this particular course is toenhance the students’ overall speaking abilities, as well asfluency. This lesson’s aim is to ensure that the students willexpress feelings using different tenses, as well give a short,informal presentation on the different phases of cultural shock inclass. A cultural shock regarded as the individual disorientationthat a person may feel in the course of experiencing an uncommonlifestyle due to immigration or a visit to a new country. It isperceived as travelling to a second type of life or moving betweenthe social surroundings. As in our case, the different nationalitiesof students make this operation important (Engber, 1995). Thisparticular topic was carefully chosen to touch on the students’sense of feelings and integrate the cultural aspect into the languageclass. It is genuinely essential to embed culture into the teachingof second languages especially when it comes to speaking classes.Thanasoulas, 2001 suggests that culture and communication areinseparable because “culture not only dictates who talks to whom,about what, and how the communication proceeds, it also helps todetermine how people encode messages, the meanings they have formessages, and the conditions and circumstances under which variousmessages&nbspmay or may not be sent, noticed, or interpreted.”

Thelesson plan is organized in such a way that a day’s lessonintegrate all the different language skills all together, elicitinglanguage from the students, giving them the chances to practice andproduce the language as possible, creating an interactive learningatmosphere among the students. As Hinkel, 2006 noted that in theglobalization era, pragmatic goals of language learning and teachingpoint at the significance of integrating the different skills,dynamics and instructional models with an emphasis on meaningfulcommunication and the development of learners` communicativecompetence.

Thelesson plan starts with an activity that includes a warm up where thestudents’ background knowledge is activated. The warm up brings tothe students an understanding of the culture shock concept, where aYouTube video on culture shock from a language other than theirtarget language is presented on board using a projector, a topic theylater guess and understand in the class to get a deeperunderstanding.

Ageneral introduction is briefly explained in order to activate thestudent’s schemata about culture shock and to introduce the conceptto those students who have no background information about thistopic. Students should show an understanding of the topic so thenthey would participate and be involved in the class dynamics. Theywould never be able to do so unless they have a general knowledgeabout the topic, theories of contribution of schemata in the processof comprehension and being able then to produce the language arekept in mind. Carrell, 1988 highlights the importance of Schematheory and activating schemata in ESL teaching contexts. He alsolists numerous ways in which relevant schemata may be constructed,including introductions, visual aids, demonstrations, real-lifeexperiences, discussions, role-play, text previewing, introductionand discussion of key vocabulary, and key-word/key-conceptassociation activities.

Thevocabulary list and “Hangman” activity is used to prepare thestudents for their lesson on the expression of feelings as they usethe various vocabularies for testing. The students will also have thecapacity to apply the vocabulary associated with the concept ofcultures into their language practice. The students then in the“Rolling class” activity are asked to present what they learnedto each other by asking each other questions related to theirfeelings about different aspects of cultural changes. This activityis aimed at enhancing the physical dynamics of the class andencouraging students to express their feelings with a limited timewith topics that touches on their own personal experiences. Tomlinson&amp Masuhara, 2009 emphasize that dynamic activities that involvephysical movement are essential in facilitating the acquisition of asecond or foreign language. They also argue that such activities canpromote educational development and can be successful in providingmotivated and meaningful experience of language in use. The questionswere well chosen, introducing the class into the topic and givingthem a general overview about the culture shock sights. Thepronunciation part then makes sure that the tenses and vocabulariesare spoken eloquently and correctly. This involves making sure thatstudents can differentiate between the different sounds of –ed andthey should be able by the end of class to recognize thesedifferences and pronounce it accurately. Then, the “Culture shockphases” activity is aimed at giving the students a general overviewof the five phases of culture shock.

Studentsare then expected to give a small presentation to their classmatesabout those different phases. The students are divided into fivegroups and each group is given a plastic bag that contains a smallsheet that contains a general overview about one of the five phasesalong with the roles of the students in each group. Student groupshave positions such as the leader, speaker, time keeper, and notetaker. It is essential to state that the bag also contains a stickypaper that has the name of the phase. Each group is asked to read thesmall sheet, discuss it, and then write a short summary about it. Thegroups are then asked to post each group’s has in the timelinedrawn in the whiteboard. Each group speaker will present a smallpresentation about the group’s phase. This activity is aimed atenhancing the students’ interaction and discussions within thegroups. Each student in the group is assigned a specific rolerandomly. This ensures that all students have equal opportunities toparticipate and to be involved in the activity. Brown &amp Lee, 2015emphasize the importance of giving all students equal opportunitiesto practice the language in the class. By the end of the activity,students are expected to gather all the information, discuss it,write a general summary, and then give a short informal presentation.This activity was carefully designed to integrate all the differentskills: reading the phase, listening and speaking within the group,writing a short summary, and giving a short presentation. Later, aquick evaluation of their understanding of the points, as well as aquick overview of what was taught, is done. The day then ends bygiving the students homework as further evaluation of theirunderstanding (Long &amp Porter, 1985).

Thislesson plan is intended to engage the students into language practiceand the sequence makes each part equally important. The students, asa result, keep maximum attention during every part of the lessonthrough writing short notes that are probably necessary for thelessons that follow.

Inthis class, the role of the teacher is that of a facilitator and aninstructor more than a lecturer. Faten and I co-taught this speakingclass. We introduced the theme of the class by showing a video onculture shock and our job from that point on was just to instruct thestudents on the next steps in the class. We provided exercises thatprompted students to take control of their language learning, as wellas participating. In addition, we moved around the classroom toensure that students are on the right track and see whether theyneeded any assistance. We also provided the vocabulary beforehandthat students might need in speaking activities.

Inthis micro-teaching speaking lesson, the role of the learners was tobe active participants. At the beginning of the class, they wereactive listeners and observers while watching the culture shockvideo. Upon that, students were using their prior knowledge andschema to guess and suggest what the video was about. In addition,this speaking lesson required them to spontaneously share their ownpersonal experiences with different types of culture shock in theactivity ‘Rolling Class’. This activity aimed at increasingstudents’ fluency and willingness to share their answers on thespot without prior planning on what to include in the answers.Students spoke freely and passionately about their culture shockexperiences. Moreover, the group work on ‘Culture Shock Stages’task, students were active as they chose the group roles, read thestage description, and then summarized it in their own words topresent it to the rest of the class. The group speaker took theresponsibility of giving a small summary to the class as well asdeciding where their stage fits on the culture shock timeline.

Nonetheless,the interaction between us and the students was more welcoming toshare their experiences, opinions, and thoughts during the wholeclass. When they were asked to share their stories in the ‘RollingClass’ activity, we encouraged them to express themselves freely byasking them to kindly sit in the middle seat and show them that theirclassmates and us are interested to hear them. Not only that, but wealso made comments on their good work and valuable experiences afterthey were done sharing. We gave feedback on their bravery to speakfluently/spontaneously and thanked them too.

Asfor the students’ interaction among themselves, they were veryinterested to hear about their classmates’ stories. In group work,they co-worked to summarize the culture shock stage given to them.They cooperated throughout the whole lesson, as well as in thegroups.

Theobjectives of this lesson were accomplished successfully. Overall,students fulfilled the objectives of learning about concepts ofculture shock and /ed/ endings pronunciation, sharing storiesnaturally, and responsibly working in their groups. In addition tothe objectives’ success, the lesson and the tasks were successfullycompleted. First, the video was guessed right. It presented the classtheme effectively. Secondly, the rolling class game was up to thestudents’ level. They were able to play and speak freely. Theyreached the aim of the task as they enthusiastically and naturallyshared their stories. This class task not only helped with naturalproduction of the language, but also helped them to know each otherbetter and relate to their classmates. The next activity was theculture shock timeline activity. The students engaged in group workwhere they had to decide group members’ roles. The group summaryhelped the speaker earn enough confidence to present a small summaryof their group culture shock stage. As for the overall groups gain,they learned to guess the sequence of culture shock.

Altogether,we consider the lesson was delivered thoroughly. If we were to teachthe lesson again, we would consider some changes in the depth ofaddressing some lesson/task sections. First, we could grab students’attention to the explanation of the class activities by asking themto observe the teacher role modeling the activity for betterunderstanding of the procedure. By doing so, we can make sureeveryone heard and understood the steps of the task before giving itto them. Second, group roles could be randomized for the purpose ofgiving shy students a chance to shine. Students could pick a randompaper out of the group role bag and find out their role and beresponsible for completing the work related. Third, it might havebeen better if we gave the whole class the chance to look at thenames of culture shock stages and decide as a whole class thesequence. This way, everyone had a fair chance to participate in thispart of the timeline game. The final possible change would be in theteaching of /ed/ endings of English. If we teach this lesson again,we would give more attention to /ed/ ending explanation. We can planmore time to teach it with more detail and examples from the cultureshock vocabulary. After explaining the concept, we can ask them towrite down at least one example for each and voluntarily share itwith the rest of the class.

Thismicro-teaching experience was very rewarding. We were fortunate totaste fun of language teaching for once again. Not only that, butalso intrigued us to imply what we learned in this course onorganizing our thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence. Hence,we, as teachers, considered ourselves as learners when planning alesson by studying the objectives closely and including as muchdetails in the lesson as possible. We believed that students shouldwalk out of class with enough knowledge gain of the lesson concept.Moreover, we had the chance to anticipate learners’ difficulties inlearning a certain language aspect like fluency. For this reason, wechose a lesson theme that relates to every student and that is easyto participate in. In the course book, “Teaching by Principles”,there was a detailed section on how to lesson plan appropriately. Wefollowed very accurately to create a lesson plan that includedauthentic language, language skills, gave a chance to all students toparticipate, and emphasized the main aspect of the class over andover through different multi skills tasks. Besides, Faten and Igained some more knowledge on how to design tasks that fit studentslearning styles. We included visual aid like the video, the timeline,and realia. Last but not least, we learned to be ready to improvisein class teaching and that practice makes perfect. Students need topractice the language as much as possible in the classroom in orderto learn better.

Inconclusion, speaking in a second language is not an easy skill toacquire as it includes very sensitive aspects to it like thelearner’s proficiency and confidence. Therefore, planning andteaching such a skill requires some careful planning and smoothteaching. Students need to be encouraged to speak regardless of theamount of the possibility of making mistakes in the target language.That is why we paid attention to appropriately addressing all thenecessary skills to learn how to speak about culture shock, as wellas developingbasic interactive skills necessary for life outside the classroomlike fluency.In addition, we aimed at providing a class that encouraged meaningfulcommunication through the activities listed above in the lesson plan.Theseactivities made students more active in the learning process and atthe same time made their learning more meaningful and fun for them.

References

Brown,D. H., &amp Lee, H. (2015). Teachingby principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy WhitePlains.N Y: Pearson Education.

Carrell,P. L., Devine, J. &amp Eskey, D. E. (Ed.) (1988). InteractiveApproaches to Second Language Reading.Cambridge: CUP.

Clarke,M. A. (1980). The short circuit hypothesis of ESL reading—or whenlanguage competence interferes with reading performance. TheModern Language Journal,64(2),203-209.

Engber,C. A. (1995). The relationship of lexical proficiency to the qualityof ESL compositions. Journalof second language writing,4(2),139-155.

Harklau,L., Losey, K. M., &amp Siegal, M. (Eds.). (1999). Generation1.5 meets college composition: Issues in the teaching of writing toUS-educated learners of ESL.U.S.A: Routledge.

Hong-Nam,K., &amp Leavell, A. G. (2006). Language learning strategy use ofESL students in an intensive English learning context. System,34(3),399-415.

Long,M. H., &amp Porter, P. A. (1985). Group work, inter-language talk,and second language acquisition. TESOLquarterly,19(2),207-228.

Oxford,R. L., &amp Burry-Stock, J. A. (1995). Assessing the use of languagelearning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of theStrategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). System,23(1),1-23.

Thanasoulas,D. (2001). “The Importance of Teaching Culture in the ForeignLanguage Classroom.” Availablefrom:&nbsphttp://radicalpedagogy.icaap.org/content/issue3_3/7thanasoulas.html

Tomlinson,B., &amp Masuhara, H. (2009). Playingto learn: A review of physical games in second language acquisition.Simulation &amp Gaming.Chicago.