Statisticalthinking is the outline of the history of problem resolving, quality,and statistics. It chains the best from numerous fields into acoherent and internally steady approach. Of the changes in the areaof statistics in the previous 25 years, it has the greatest chance ofcontinuing. The benefits of implementing statistical thinking intobusiness processes include fewer out-of-specification outcomes, fewerprohibited and recalled batches, reduced cycle time, quicker andbetter endorsements, improved productivity and efficiency, and, ofcourse, better quality for the consumer. The key components of thisfield are three and are listed below (Britz et al. 1997).
1.All work happens in a structure of interrelated processes.
2.Disparity occurs in all processes.
3.Understanding and decreasing dissimilarity is vital to victory.
Thesethree crucial ideologies can be expounded into ten concepts:
i.Work occurs in systems of processes and sub-processes ofinterconnected steps, known as the SIPOC model: processes haveSuppliers that offer Inputs into the Process activity the endoutcome is the Output that then goes to the Client. This model offersa worldwide overview useful for broadly defining the process.
ii.Processes can be mapped (12), flow charted, studiedsystematically, understood, and amended. However, optimizing everystep separately can result in a suboptimum process.
iii.The job is led by groups of persons with contrary upbringings,expertise, education, skills, requirements, and prospects.
iv.The process results contrast as a consequence of both systematicor special reasons and random or common causes. These can be found,understood and studied. Note that dysfunctional groups are a sourceof disparity in the system.
v.Cause-and-effect relations are the pillars of science. It ispossible to find, study, quantitate, and understand theserelationships.
vi.Variability is the enemy of CGMPs, validation, quality,productivity, efficiency, and profits.
vii.Variability can be measured, studied, and understood.
viii.Statistics is the science of variation
ix.It is possible to cut down variability in various processes. If itis not fixed, implementing a philosophy of running to a goal andworking for stability is needed.
x. The company`s succeeding by continuous amendments using teams toreduce variation and bring processes into statistical stability.
Thesteps that Ben ought to take are stated as follows. First, he oughtto appreciate variation where he will create a procedure that acts ina way that converts variation to a form that makes variationaccountable to what makes an activity “statistical.” A holisticview of “statistical approaches” to variation needs thoughtfulconsiderations. Second, our thinking is model founded on variousbasis. The thinking is based on the construction, adoption, andenhancement models and makes predictions or subtractions from them.The available statistical models are a tiny subsection of the modelswe use, as are the replicas of context-matter theory. Numerousinternal mental models of our own design are available. It is throughthese internal mental models, which are largely subconscious, thatour systems are able to work and fit together. “meaning” isextracted and formed on the basis of those models. Third, statisticalknowledge and some context information to involve in statisticalthinking is required. Lastly, the basic constituents on whichstatistical thinking works include context knowledge, statisticalknowledge, and information on data. The thinking by itself is thefusion of these elements to give suggestion, conjectures andintuition (Joiner, 1994).
Amajor procedure in problem solving mainly involves knowing how tosustain the problem and not failing to tackle what one would leastexpect. Ignorance is a major limitation and whatever we think we knowis usually what bounds us to exploiting the root causes of theproblems. Getting incorrect information or knowledge can mislead usin various ways, for instance, they can prevent us from getting themost significant information at various levels. The statistician ismuch affected by limited information from a client as this is veryimportant in the problem solving procedure. A good way of approachinga problem is to look at how a related problem was handled and applythis to solve the current problem. History of how a particularproblem was solved in the past and the procedure used in solving theproblem is the best remedy in tackling the current problem. Astatistician mostly relies on the client as the principle source ofinformation. This by itself is a limitation because the quality ofinformation received will greatly depend on the quality ofcommunication and the knowledge of the client. The information alsocontains the client’s preconceptions. Even with these, a goodstatistician should be able to do their best in problem solvingrather than seek the correct answers. In the process of solving theproblem, the statistician is however expected to meet the client’sneed in the best way possible. Actual statistics focuses less on thequest for the correct answers but rather, it focuses more on how bestone can achieve within limitations (Moore, 1997).
Therefore,the advice Juan is that he is supposed to set a list of prescriptionshe fills up and to try to study the wrong prescriptions that he fillsout. This will enable him to find a pattern that will ensure he knowswhat goes wrong and makes him make those mistakes. He should alsodevelop a comprehensive system that will further guarantee that hehas fewer mistakes in the future. He should also declineprescriptions that are not clearly written to avoid future mistakes.
Britz, G., Emerling, D., Hare, L., Hoerl, R. and Shade, J. (1997). How to teach others to apply statistical thinking. Quality Progress, June 1997 issue, 67-79.
Joiner, B. L. (1994). Fourth Generation Management : The new business consciousness. New York : McGraw-Hill.
Moore, D. (1997). New Pedagogy and New Content: The Case of Statistics. International Statistical Review, 65(2),123-165