StrategicLeadership in a Transnational Context
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StrategicLeadership in a Transnational Context
Intoday`s world, leadership has been conceptualized, and theoriesdeveloped to ensure that leaders fully understand what leadership isand what in involves. Consequently, there are various theories thatare used when training future leaders for their effective leadership(Boal& Hooijberg, 2001).For example, leadership in the twenty-first century is the maininfluenced by major processes such as political changes (powertheory), globalization, human innovation, culture, and gender (Hogan,Curphy, & Hogan, 1994).Consequently, the processes used in leadership are influenced byleadership theories that are appropriate in organizational orbusiness models for effective management. Moreover, theories such asgender and culture have been used to change the concept of leadershipand promote the aspect of distributed leadership thus resulting to amore relational and less individualistic leadership. For this reason,the current paper will address the four theories of leadershipnamely, culture, power, gender, and sector.
Toachieve the above objectives, the paper will use Griffins Company asthe reference case study. The Griffin motor is a manufacturingcompany that produces bespoke utility and luxurious sports vehicles.The company is based in the United States of America but has a hugemarket share in Europe and other production firms in the UnitedKingdom and Germany. In the 1990s decade, Griffin motor overextendedits luxury car manufacturing and market and gave a positive responseto the rapid growth over the past years (Griffin,2002).
Consequently,the paper addresses the various types of power the dimensions usedin the natural culture and how they influence leadership in GriffinsCompany the impact of gender on Company’s performance and how itinfluences the horizontal segregation of the leadership will beexamined lastly, the paper addresses how various sectors are used togive an implication the company’s leadership this will be based onthe public and private sectors. Lastly, the paper will conclude thatfour leadership theories are used to describe the models that showstrong resembles and emphasis on transformational leadership thisincludes issues such as power distribution, cultural diversity,embracing both feminine and male leaderships, and the impact of theprivate and public sectors.
TheFour theories of leadership and how they have influenced leadershipin Griffins
The Power Theory
Powerin leadership is defined as the ability to influence and controlother people in a way that they can change their behaviors orcultural beliefs. The power theory is used in business to give thestructure or the hierarchy through which the power is distributed inan organization from the top most to lesser being running theorganization. This means that the power theory is used to define theresponsibilities and role played by various individuals in anorganization. When one is talking about power, there are varioustypes of power that are used by organizations when defining the roleswithin departments, faculties, or within the entire organizations(French & Raven, 1959). Griffin Company is known to applylegitimate power in its leadership. This is because the company hasvarious formal positions held by executives and official who areelected through a formal election. According to Greenleaf& Spears (2002), thisform of power is exercised to define the role that should be playedby each holding a high position within an organization this meansthat Griffin Company uses a bureaucratic form of power oradministration.
Onthe other hand, the organization has set aside rules and regulationsthat are used to guide the workers while according to any activitythat relate to the organization. According to Conger(1999) and Haslam, Reicher, & Platow (2013), disciplineis key to all employees regardless of their position to achieve thecharismatic type of leadership. A discipline committee has been putin place to deal with individuals who do not adhere to theorganization`s set rules and organization. This means that thecompany employs a coercive type of power to where wrong doers arepenalized or punished where applicable. For example, it is crime toany worker in Griffins to take part in any corruption act themanagement has the mandate to punish or penalized an individual whois corrupt or uses the Company`s resources for personal gain.
Additionally,to encourage the leaders and the employees, the company has initiateda rewards scheme where the best leaders are rated and rewards fortheir leadership strategies and good work. This implies that thecompany uses reward power by providing rewards to the leaders whoseleadership strategies are influential. Moreover, the relationshipbetween the leaders and the followers is based on mutual respectevery leader is supposed to respect the followers and the followerstoo should respect the leaders (Hmieleski, & Ensley, 2007). Thistype of power as exercised by Griffins Company is called referentpower. However, expert type of power is not evident in Griffins’leadership. Additionally, it is against the Company’s policies forany leader to use his or her personal power for individual orpersonal benefits (Nye,2004)they are not supposed to use the power given to them for personalgain this may lead to punishment or penalty where the top managersuse the power-coercive to them.
The theory of culture
Theessence of culture and power defines the forms of leadership traitsthat should be used in a given organization. However, Chaffee& Tierney (1988) argue that organizationculture is the main factor that influences the performance of themanagers and employees, influence gender, determine the style ofleadership, determine what is seen as either good or bad leadershipwithin an organization. As a result, firstly, an organization can usethe natural culture as a dimension through which the organizationdefines their leadership based on the cultural influence andpractices. The Culture used in Griffins Company is no differentbecause the top managers use the Company’s culture to rewards theleaders, determine none-performing leaders, exercise power, and todefine the national culture.
Agood example where culture is exercised is in the United States wherethe performance of the organizations is affected by its culture thatis linked to its horizontal differences such as departments actingindependently or against each other. Moreover, the leadership cultureused is based in the power theory. Hofstede(2001) asserted that this impliesthat the top management uses the power theory as an approach to breakdown the culture to various subcultures that are based on itsfunctional structure these include cultures such as femininity andmasculinity responsibilities, power distance, and the type oforientations that is given to the new leaders. As a result, there arevarious types of leadership management that can be used to supplementleadership theories such as leader’s innovative, critical thinking,and cross-functionality within an organization is influenced by theorganizational culture (House et al., 1999) this culture isevidenced in Griffins Company.
Additionally,because the Griffins Company manufactures vehicles, there are someuncertainties that face the management. Consequently, the topmanagement has employed the uncertainty avoidance as a dimension ofmitigating various techniques through which uncertainties arecontrolled and avoided. Here, all employees are supposed to followthe company’s rules and regulations especially the safety andquality rules to avoid damages that can be caused due to negligence.This is a unique culture that has resulted in teamwork also referredto as individualism-collectivism this is a culture dimension whereteam leaders are elected to lead the group (Schein,2010)this helps the organization to retain the highest performance andachieve adequate protection of its resources and that of the workers.
The theory of gender
Gender,culture, and power are three theories that are connected. This isbecause, according to Hofstede (1980), organizations are definedusing the system or the structure that is based both on the cultureand the gender. However, in Griffins Company, the issue of gender isindirectly related to the organizational hierarchy and culture. Thisis because since when the company was started people perceive thatmotor manufacturing is a complex task that can only be done by men.Consequently, the schedule and pattern used in Griffins are shapedonly to fit masculinity and not femininity. From the theory of genderthe management in an organization is supposed to practice equalrights when assigning duties, leadership positions, or adapting newwork patterns (Stelter,2002).However, this is not the case in Griffins Company because themanagement does not support the sense of gender dualism when givingthe hierarchical leadership positions in company management.
Moreover,most of the workforce in Griffins is made up of males generallymales are known to dominate in organizational leadership positions,work in well-paying jobs, and more complex ones because they areconventional and traditionally favored by their masculine nature(Bartol,Martin, & Kromkowski, 2003).For this reason, the Griffin manufacturing company in the UnitedStates of America mostly considers employing more males than femaleshowever, it used a democratic way when choosing the leaders. Ascompared to the US, Europe also majors on male leaders but theprocess of voting for them is very autocratic and not democratic.However, due to globalization organizations that do not approvefemales to be in the top leadership and management are changing thatmentality because of cultural diversity and different types of powerthat are used today. This means that gender influences leadershipthus impacting the general performance and power exercised in anorganization (Ridgeway,2001).As a result, companies are forced to change from masculine leadershipapproach to both masculine and feminine leadership to strict abalance. For example, according to Engen,Leeden, & Willemsen (2001),Americans have changed masculine approach to a more feminineleadership approach to ensure equal participation in strategicleadership.
The theory of Sector
TheSector is another theory that impacts the public and the privatesector in an organization. Consequently, as a public company, Griffinhas experienced massive leadership implications when operating itsdaily operations and activities. For instance, the top management inGriffin are restricted when using the public resources they mustconsult the government first for approval. As compared to the privatesector, this means that the leaders are limited in what they can do agiven time frame or when making decisions that affect theorganization. This is one feature that shows the difference betweenthe private and the public sector. The reason for limiting theleaders in Griffin is because the leaders are elected through aformal election by characteristics such as integrity, accountability,social ability, and knowledge of the types of power are used todetermine the right leader (French & Raven, 1959) this meansthat Griffin Company uses a democratic form of leadership where astrong administrative leadership system is used. As a result, theleaders use particular organizational cultures such as type of power,gender issues, and leadership traits to define the accountabilityissues in its leadership systems. This has impacted the wayresources and used and distributed within Griffin Company becausethey are mainly based on the political choices of the leaders and notof the price mechanisms used within the organization.
Additionally,the public sector has been used to define the type of power practicedin Griffins because is allow the top managers to use theirauthoritative power when making choices, assigning duties and tasks,and when defining the management purpose within the organization.Boal& Hooijberg (2001) argued that sectors are the ones that definethe strategies to use in organizational leadership. Onthe other hand, it is the key responsibility of the leaders inGriffin to encourage the employees to participate effectively in theorganization`s politics especially when they are making a collectivedecision or performing dual tasks.
Inconclusion, the paper has reviewed the various leadership theoriesand how they have influenced leaders for effective performance inGriffin Company. From the above theories it is evident that the powertheory is key because it influences gender theory while culturetheory influence the three theories namely the power theory, thesector theory, and the gender. As a result, the leadership theoriesshows that leaders should focus on leadership styles and situationssurrounding their leadership this includes the components such aspeople`s culture, gender, type of power, and the sector through whichleadership model can be based. This means that there are variousleadership models that can be used by leaders for effectiveleadership.
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