Student`s Name

PART1 (a) Internal Gas Flows

Airflow bench is a tool that measures the air flow capabilities ofvarious applications. For quite long, it has been an invaluable toolto those interested in the improvement of the performance of internalcombustion engines. With the flow-bench equipment, it is possible totest inlet manifolds, valve profiles, exhaust systems, air cleaners,etc. The goal of flow bench testing is to obtain the actual airflowfigures by flowing air under controlled conditions (Bettes, 2014).With this, it is possible to study airflow characteristics such asvelocity, turbulence, tumble, swirl, and distribution

FundamentalTechnique

Aflow bench uses a source of airflow a means of measuring the actualairflow, a way of controlling the test pressure of applied air and asurface for mounting the device under test. When the test piece is ont the surface, some pressure, usually called test pressure is appliedand the resulting airflow measured. Air flow measurement is bydetermining the pressure drops across an orifice with a knowncharacteristic. When the air flow is greater, there will be moresignificant pressure drop. Water column manometer measures the flowrate and the test pressure (Bettes, 2014). The process does notdepend on atmospheric parameters, that is, air temperature andpressure. All variations are applied to the test piece and themeasuring system (Ratiometric measuring). For a full range ofaccurate testing, several orifices are used.

Descriptionof Apparatus

Airbox, Vertical Manometer, Inclined Manometer, Orificeholes and Mounting bench

AdaptingCylinder heads for testing

Thecylinder heads adapt to the flow test bench using cylinder adaptors.These adaptors are the 4-inch long tubes that have the same bore asthe engine. A Flange Is welded on each of its ends. The lower flangeis fixed on the flow tester while the upper one is mounted on theengine cylinder head. These flanges have gaskets to make the unionair tight. It is sometimes convenient to make the adaptor flange 20%wider than the test cylinder. It ensures that the there is supportfor the head when it is offset to test the end cylinders.

Toopen the valves to desired test positions, a threaded mount isattached to a rocker arm stud. It is such that the end of the bolt isin contact with the end of the valve stem. On the cylinder headintake side, a radiused entrance guide is installed so that it leadsthe air into to the head. This guide has a thickness equivalent toone port width. Alternatively, the intake manifold may be used(Ganesan, 2012)

Performingthe test

Inthe Flow bench, air flows via the engine cylinder head to flow benchset up. This air passes in an air pump exiting via the vents on theflow bench sides. This air flow measurement is in Cubic foot perminute (CFM).The pressure is the difference that occurs over an adjustable airflow orifice mounted on the flow bench. Several ranges are takenusing a flow meter to achieve high accuracy over. In the bench, it ispossible to vary full-scale flow measurement from 25 CFM to 1000 CFM.

Presentationof Results

Thechart flow is calculated by multiplying the flow meter reading by thecorrected flow range and then subtracting the leakage flow rate. Itgives the test flow rate. This test flow rate can be compared toother tests without further calculations. To rectify the temperaturedifference caused by the air passing through the blower motor, thetest flow is multiplied by the difference temperature factor. Thetemperature- difference is the difference between the upper and lowerthermometer readings. The valve efficiency is obtained by calculatingthe flow in tier square inch of valve area and then comparing that tothe best yet achieved.

Calculationof Air flow: V (m/s) = L * N/30000 * (D /d)2

RPM

Gas Flow (m/s)

1500

0.03

m/s

2500

0.05

m/s

3500

0.07

m/s

4500

0.09

m/s

LearningExperience

  • It is advisable always to maintain the same orifice range at the same test point.

  • The leakage CFM remains to a minimum by making a good seal on all surfaces, including the valves in the head.

  • If light valve springs are used, it is ensured that they are not sucked open by the vacuum of the intake tests.

  • The meters are always leveled and zeroed before each test.

Commenton Differing Valve Seat Angles

Multipleangles to fully radiused seats are essential for good air flow. Atypical competition intake valve seat will consist of a 30° top cut100&quot wide, a 450seat, 40&quot wide, and a 70° inside cut 180&quot wide. An exhaustregulator will work well with a 15° top cut 60&quot wide, followedby a 45° seat 60&quot wide, and a 75° inside cut 100&quot wide.The Flow-bench test will in most cases reveal a superior shape forany specified head (Shi, Ge &amp Reitz, 2011).

PART1 (b) Literature Review

TheGeometry of Engine intake port determines swirl ratio,characteristics of combustion and volumetric efficiency. Fordifferent configuration of the port, Swirl generation has beeninvestigated to obtain the optimal swirl ratio that is useful forvarious engine applications and conditions of operation this leadsto optimal combustion (Ganesan, 2012).

Inthe development of internal combustion engine, optimization of thegas inflow through intake ports is an important process because themovement of charge produced by the intake flow considerably affectsthe quality of air-fuel mixture and combustion. The flow fieldpatterns of the combustion chamber at the time of fuel injection andensuing interactions with fuel sprays and combustion phenomena formsdominant parameters of the engine performance and levels of exhaustemissions in the engine.

Otherimportant considerations in optimal engine design are the exactmatching of the engine, parameters of fuel injection, the shape ofthe bowl, compression ratio, characteristics of scavenging andrecirculation of exhaust gas. The flow field of the cylinder mostlydepends on the swirl and motion of tumble during the intake stroke.Because it is not easier to determine the swirling flow within theengine while in operation, constant stream tests are mainly used toevaluate the swirl together with the discharge coefficient (Ferguson&amp Kirkpatrick, 2015). It is an important process while designingof a new engine. It results in making a geometrical shape of anintake valve that will give optimal swirl ratio.

Inthe engine cylinder, high turbulence occurs during the intake stroke.The turbulence then falls as the flow rate declines towards theengine’s bottom dead center (BDC). This turbulence again increasesduring the compression stroke. At the same time, swirl, squish andtumble increase towards the engine’s top dead center (TDC). Thisincreased turbulence at the TDC during starting is highly significantfor the process of combustion in the engine. It is because it breaksand spreads the burning flame front very fast compared to a laminarflame. The air-fuel mixture is completely burned within a fraction ofthe time, avoiding self- igniting and knocking (Shi, Ge &amp Reitz,2011). To increase the turbulence, engine cylinder expands when thecombustion process is taking place.

Theair intake system’s primary function is to supply clean air to theengine with the correct amount that is required for burning in themanifold chamber. The efficiency of air flow in the air intake systemdirectly impacts the power delivered by the engine. The primary taskof an intake port is to supply air to the cylinders properly. Thisidentical supply of air to cylinders is very critical for the optimaloperation of the engine. Air distribution that is uneven leads tonon-uniform volumetric efficiency in cylinders, loss in power andincreased fuel usage. When the Interior Combustion engine is inoperation, pressure waves occur because of pressure drop in cylindersin intake strokes.

Fromthe literature reviewed, it is noted that the designing of the inletmanifold arrangement is very significant in an internal combustionengine (IC). Horsepower of an IC engine varies proportionally to thequantity of air drawn into the cylinder and retained until ignitiontakes place (Agrawal, 2006). Through the reduction of the resistanceof the air flowing through the intakes and exhaust tract, the fillingof the cylinder improves and engine power is increased directly.

Thepower that is gained by improving the airflow depends on thevolumetric efficiency of the engine (how the cylinder is full). Foran engine that has 60% volumetric efficiency, it can be increasedmore than an engine that has 90% volumetric efficiency. The totalflow of air through an internal combustion engine determines itsmaximum horsepower. When it is at peak power, the engine uses 1.67cubic feet of air (CFM) per minute for each horsepower it develops.For instance, a 100 HP engine uses 167 CFM. It holds true for anyfour-cycle internal combustion engine. Alcohol burning engines uses1.47 CFM per Horsepower developed (Ferguson &amp Kirkpatrick, 2015).

Tooptimize the engine power output, the capacity of airflow of theengine has to be improved, or the air-fuel charge must burn to themaximum. Most engine manufacturers concentrate primarily onincreasing the airflow. To ensure that more air passes through anengine, the carburetor’s flow resistance, intake manifold, andcylinder head are reduced. This requirement has led to hundreds ofafter-market carburetors, intake manifolds, and cylinder heads thatare ported out, and all are designed to increase airflow through theengine (Shi, Ge &amp Reitz, 2011)

of Key Findings

Toachieve maximum airflow, the ideal air intake system requires asingle carburetor for every cylinder with a slide-plate throttle anda venturi that is equivalent to 85 times the diameter of the intakevalve. Below this venture, the bore of the carburetor should open upgradually to the size of intake valve at the entrance to intakemanifold and gradually tapers down up to 85 times the diameter of theintake valve at a level about 1/2&quot below the valve seat (Gupta,2013).

Practically,this ideal has never been achieved, but it offers a guide for what anactive port should look. When creating a port on a cylinder head formaximum air-flow, the following points should be considered.

  • Losses in flow arise from changes in direction and decreases in velocity (port bends and expansions).

  • The Port area should range between 65% to 100% of the valve area

  • Materials are primarily removed from the outside of port bends and not in the inside. By doing this, the flow improves t by increasing the radius of the bend.

  • Port length and surface finish do not affect the flow.

  • The valve seat shape substantially affects the flow.

Section2: Chassis Analytical design

FORCE COMPONENT

&nbsp

FORMULAR

RESULT

UNITS

Drag

=

½ ρV2A CD

272.10

N

Lift

=

½ ρV2A CL

526.64

N

Side force

=

½ ρV2A CLCS

10.53

N

Pitching moment

=

½ ρV2A CPMLWB

81.28

Nm

Rolling moment

=

½ ρV2A CRMLWB

40.64

Nm

Yawing moment

=

½ ρV2A CYMLWB

365.75

Nm

Drag power loss

=

Drag x Velocity

9.07

KNM/s (KW)

Downforce

=

Drag x Height of CoG

77.55

Nm @33.33m/s

Weightis a product of the mass and gravity (W = mg). Because the weight isbeing pulled towards the core of the earth by the force of gravity,it is regarded as force and as a result, measured in Newton (N)

TotalWeight, WT= 1,519.4 * 9.81 =14,905.31 N

FrontWeight, WF= 14,905.31 * 40/100 = 5,962.13 N

RearWeight WR= 14,905.31 * 60/100 = 8943.19 N

Takingmoments about the front:

WF* 0 +WT* a – WR* LWB = 0

Tobe in equilibrium, the sum of all moments is equal to zero.

Therefore,WT* a = WR* LWB

Fromwhich a= WR* LWB/WT =1.389 m

andb= LWB– a =0.932m

FrontForces (40%) are given by:

Side force

=

10.53*40/100

=4.21Nm

Pitching moment

=

81.28*40/100

=32.51Nm

Rolling moment

=

40.64*40/100

=16.26Nm

Yawing moment

=

365.75*40/100

=146.30Nm

*Note:Per axle gives data, divided by 2 per wheel while assuming 50/50centerline position.

Rearforces (60%) are given by

Side force

=

10.53*60/100

=6.32 Nm

Pitching moment

=

81.28*60/100

=48.77 Nm

Rolling moment

=

40.64*60/100

=24.38 Nm

Yawing moment

=

365.75*60/100

=219.45Nm

*Note:Per axle provides data, divided by 2 per wheel while assuming 50/50centerline position.

Implicationsfor Chassis Design

Drag

Drag,in vehicle aerodynamics, is made up primarily of two forces. Frontalpressureresultsfrom the air when it flows on the front of the vehicle.Rearvacuumoccurs as a consequence of an apparent hole created in the air as thevehicle passes through it. The hole occurs because the air moleculesdo not close the hole as quickly as the vehicle makes it and causes asucking effect on the opposite direction. In Chassis design knowledgeof drag force helps in keeping flow attachment because the forceresulting from the vacuum is more than that created by frontalpressure. Consequently, the whole length of the chassis has to beoptimized to ensure there are minimum turbulence and maximum speed.

Pitching,Yaw and Roll Moments

TheRolling, pitching and yawing moments are rotations about theindividual axes, starting from a steady and a defined equilibriumstate. Conventionally, the rolling moment acts about the longitudinalaxis the yaw moment acts about the vertical body axis while thePitch moment acts around an axis that is perpendicular to thelongitudinal symmetry of the vehicle (Ling, Genta &amp Morello,2009)

Automotivedesigners build control mechanisms for the orientation of the vehicleabout its center of mass. These mechanisms of control apply forces insome of the directions and produce moments about the aerodynamiccenter of the vehicle. It rotates the vehicle in pitch, roll, or yaw.For instance, a pitch moment is a vertical force that acts at adistance forward or backward from the aerodynamic center of thevehicle. The vehicle thus to pitches up or down. The knowledge ofthese forces (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw moments) is, therefore, importantto vehicle designers because it helps attain stability in the design.

References

Agrawal,S. K. (2006). Internalcombustion engines.New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers.

Bettes,H. (2014). Engineairflow hp1537: A practical guide to airflow theory, parts testing,flow bench testing and analyzing data to increase performance for anystreet or racing engine.New York: HP Books.

Ferguson,C. R., &amp Kirkpatrick, A. (2015). Internalcombustion engines: Applied thermosciences.

Ganesan,V. (2012). ICengines.New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Griffin,T., National Research Council (É.-U.)., Transit CooperativeResearch Program., &amp États-Unis. Federal TransitAdministration. (2006). Centertruck performance on low-floor light rail vehicles.Washington, D.C: Transportation Research Board.

Gupta,H. N. (2013). Fundamentalsof internal combustion engine.Delhi: PHI Learning.

Ling,F. F., Genta, G., &amp Morello, L. (2009). TheAutomotive Chassis: Vol. 2: System Design.Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Shi,Y., Ge, H.-W., &amp Reitz, R. D. (2011). Computationaloptimization of internal combustion engines.

Student`s Name

OutdoorConcert Project

Asuccessful concert entails a lot of critical planning. It isimportant for a manager in charge of a concert to take intoconsideration the factors that lead to its success. The major factorsthat a manager should concern himself with are, the date of theconcert, the capacity of people attending the concert and theentrance fee, the location of the concert the promoters of theevent, the entertainment, the availability of food, the availabilityof portable toilets, security, and a backup plan. This is a rationaleessay for my concert plans.

Itis important always to analyze which day an event would likelyattract people. For instance during summer it is easy for people tobe mobile compared to winter and busy days. This can be supported bythe movie industry many movies debut in the cinemas during summer.The same principle is applied in the concert planning. You have topick a day that people will not be busy and the best day is Saturday.That is the reason I chose Saturday, February 13th, 2016.

PersonallyI believe that a successful concert depends on an easily accessiblefamiliar ground. People will easily attend a concert that is locatedin a place that they can associate with that’s why I pickedCynthia Wood Mitchell Pavilion. Also, the place is attractive, neatand easy to plan an event. The fact that the place is known reducesthe cost of advertisements its cost is lenient as it will cost$20000 cheaper compared to other venues, thus why I settled for thatchoice.

Peopleare drawn to the concert due to the entertainment associated with it.As this is a local show I thought the Tontons band would be a goodchoice as they are treasured by Houston locals and their performancecost is $4000 within our choice budget. They will merry people withindie rock. Also I included Caretta Bell and Miller Lauren, toenable people get a bit of a sexy and sweet soul lyric enhancing theromance theme, the back bone of all entertainment concerts. Theircost is $2000 each. In entertainment section, I also included photobooths these would make people keep memories of the event. Theinclusion of horse carriage would add to couple romantic theme. Wealso decided to include carnival games for children to make the eventlively.

Wehave different classes of people with different tastes, as a managerit is important you plan well on how to satisfy these desires ofdifferent classes. That’s why I came up with a reserved seating lotfor the couples at $55 and individuals at $60 and unreserved lot at$35. The reserved lot was much expensive compared to the unreservedlot. We gave a discount to the couples in the reserved sections toencourage a high couple turn up. The price variation is based onclasses and what the customers prefer.

Sponsorsare important in any concert, from financial assistance to serviceprovision and event promotion. I chose the Xfinity group to providecommercial space and adverts to create awareness of the event. Secondly to this list of the sponsors, I added Citi bank to provideus with banking and insurance services. I chose the Citi bank as theyare capable of providing us with financial security. To increase theevent attraction, i collaborated with the Audi automotive group whowould give two cars as prizes to be won that day. In the provision oftransportation service, I collaborated with the United Airlines dueto their performer mobility. In drinks provision, I chose theCoca-Cola to provide complimentary drinks.

Dueto cultural diversity and different age groups, I preferred four foodvendors. Firstly, the waffle bus that would provide burgers,sandwiches, fries and sweets. Secondly, I went for the Oh my Gogithat provides Mexican- Korean fusion foods. Thirdly, I settled forthe Mushi Makimtos, which will provide Japanese-Korean with Americanflavors foods and finally the Smooch cookies that will provide icecream, cookies, and frozen treats.

Securityis an essential in every event people need to feel secure inconcerts. I will collaborate with the local police also with theprivate sector in the provision of security. The security personnelwill have both uniform and civilian’s clothes to enable them tohandle security issues from all angles. Security for the event willbe personnel from the private sector and those that will be providedby county government. There will be automated entrance plus physicalchecks and security checks in the event. There will be demarcated andpredesigned routes to follow in the concert. Roughly we estimate thecost of security to be$ 5000 exclusive of security equipment’s andsecurity backup.

Weplan to have around 30 portable toilets at cost of $120 each indifferent stations to enable easy accessibility. In the case of badweather, we have decided to use the NRG Stadium.

Thetotal cost of running this event is estimated to be $16600. The costis manageable when compared to expected turn up of the event. As ofnow I give this concert a veto. This event will be successful as allfactors have been catered for, and cost project are within manageablelimit.

CitedWorks

Worksmart: Fundamentals of Project Management. , n.d. Print.

Heagney,Joseph. Fundamentals of Project Management. New York: AmericanManagementAssociation,2012. Internet source

s

Student`s name

Professorname

Psychologyof religion

SigmundFreud, Carl G. Jung, and William James are writers of classicaltheories of the psychology of religion. This part of essay examinestheir differences in theory and methodological approach to the studyof religion and their contribution to religion, particularly in myunderstanding.

SigmundFreud

Tobegin with Freud’s concept that religion is an illusion, Freudcommunicates to the reader of his text that religion is a fallacy,and he likens to father-child relationship. As the child grows, inthis sense a religious person, he realizes he is destined to be achild and needs to a protector against unknown. The culture does muchof cementing this reasoning in a person while he is still young. As aresult, a person creates for himself a god of whom is afraid of andseeks protection from. Freud tries to say that the main reasonbehind religion is as a result of a person feeling insecure and thathe needs protection. To discredit religion Freud uses an example of ageography question about “location of Konstanz in Bodensee whichcan be proven by seeing if you don’t believe” (Freud, 42). Heintends to say if religion is true, why then have the believers ofreligion have not been able to provide evidence.

Headds that the responses given by religious people are baseless as tothe reason for their belief in religion. Freud intends to say, thefact that something was done by ancestors, does not warrant anyone tosay that it’s right or true. Some of the traditions that weretreasured by ancestors of man have been disregarded as beingworthless and without value, according to Freud it would not be asurprise if religion was one ( Freud,45). Secondly, the fact thatreligion claims that they possess proofs that also need to be proventhemselves is also illogical in Freud`s eyes. Thirdly, the fact thatit is forbidden in religion to raise questions about the authenticityof religion made Freud doubt even more the truth behind religion.(Freud, 43). Science can be proven, as it is not an illusion and itsresults can be replicated anywhere, but the existence of God is afallacy. “Their God is nothing but an insurbantiantial shadow andno longer the mighty personality of religious doctrine” (Freud,54).The reason people hold onto religion is because it provides hope andprotection that according to Freud is based on illusion wishfulfillment is the driving force toward religion.

CarlJung

Hedifferentiates the West and East thinking regarding philosophy andpsychology. He claims that critical philosophy the mother ofpsychology is foreign in the East and medieval Europe. He shows howthe word mind in the East has a connation of something metaphysicswhile the Western conception has lost this connotation. The word mindmeans or signifies psychic function in The East, and it is upon thisthat existence is based (Jung, xxxv). He showed how the Westernperceived a personal mind as having no connection with hypotheticaluniversal mind. Western have succeeded in isolating the mind in itssphere and in severing it from pre-model oneness with the universe.Psychology treats all metaphysical claims and assertion as a mentalphenomenon and regards them as a statement. Carl Jung states that itis possible that our mind is nothing but a perceptible manifestationof universal mind.

Psychologyholds that mind cannot establish anything beyond itself (Jung, xxx).In East, the mind is a cosmic factor that the very essence ofexistence while in the West it has not yet fully begun to becomprehended. This is to mean that it is important to the conditionof cognition and hence the cognitive existence of the world. In East,there is no conflict between religion and science as there is noscience based upon passion for facts and no religion upon mere faith.What Jung means, there is religious cognition and cognitive religion.In western, the grace of God is everything, man depend solely on God,but in the eastern man is God himself, and he redeems himself (Jung,xxxiv). Jung shows how East bases itself upon psychic reality uponwhich it exists and is the sole source of its higher development forit believes in self-liberation. Also, western man is Christian, nomatter what denomination in Christianity he belongs. Jung depictswestern man as fearful and fully dependent on God, was he to replacethat power God represents with money them the western man would bevery greedy, glutton, and all other sorts of things.

WilliamJames

James’ideology represents an interesting fusion of two fundamentaltraditions in the history of psychology of religion he incorporatesboth descriptive and explanatory elements while more descriptivepsychologists aim to be sympathetic of individuals and see the truthas something subjective that is to be seen from within. Explanatoryapproach understands religion materialistically. Its claim maintainsthat every phenomenon is psychologically explainable. His willingnessto place differently the aspects or religion into grader categoriesof pathology is explanatory, but his claim that this does not reducetheir value to determine their origin is sympathetic. What matters toJames, is understanding the truth in how religion can help humanitydetermine its moral potential. He makes a distinction between theorigins of the phenomena in question and the value of that phenomenonand requires that you determine each truth in different independentways.

Thepurpose of James is to defend the religious point of view. He caresto determine what values religions hold to humanity. James dedicateshis first lecture to convince the reader that origins are notpossible to an indicator of value and materialism and cannotdiscredit religion by claiming that its source is in psychologicallyexplainable roots. He uses the religious genius to do hisinvestigation. Since all states of mind and scientific theories areorganically conditioned, it is not possible to discount a religiousidea on its origin (James, 15). The assumption of medical materialismthat states of mind are inherently superior to other (James, 16) ishow they can value scientific ideas and spurn religious ones. Purelymedical and explanatory test cannot resolve this disagreement betweenspiritual and existential judgments. The theory of pathologicalcausation of genius is used to show how genius is allied to moralinsanity and the greater the genius the greater the morbidity of andunsoundness of his mind. The spiritual is judged by immediateluminousness, philosophical reasonableness, and moral helpfulness.Empiricist must evaluate fruits, not the roots. James attempts toconvince his readers that the religious should be judged by theirresults giving practical value to the moral life of the individual.

Philosopher’sContribution to Religion

Ithink Freud contributed immensely to the rise of Atheism. The theoryof atheist is based upon the ideology that God does not exist, andreligion is an illusion. I believe too that Freud gave reason topeople to look religion from the analytical point of view and gavescience to people as new God. Charles Darwin believed that humanbeing evolved and were not created, in mind he is the same as Freud.Thus Freud gave anti-religionist a cause in their lives.

CarlJung has enabled fellow philosophers, even readers, to realize andunderstand the extroversion and introversion of western and easternreligions and their bases on their faith or actions towards religion.He has shown why those who believe in Buddhism can access the powerof unconscious mind hence attaining self-enlightenment. He brings outthe psychology of western and eastern mind to live.

Jamesasserts that religion is true, giving the religious hope that theycling not to an illusion. He makes it legitimate to study religionthrough experimental dimension. He encourages scholars opposed toreligion to judge it by its moral value and fruits and not its roots.He encouraged the scholars to study religion without fear of beingdiscarded for studying the extreme.

Phenomenologyof Religion by Mircea Eliade

Heconcentrates his studies on the symbolism of religion he states thatman is a homo symbilus. Eliade states that historian of religiondeals with an understanding of man and his situation in the world(Eliade, 88). Historians according to Eliade are preoccupied withthose religious symbols that are bound up with the religiousexperience. Eliade states that historian should not ignore that ishistorically concrete. Historians are supposed to familiarizethemselves with the greatest possible number of religious in theirelementary stages. He uses archaic and primitive religion to statethis case. It is the responsibility of the historian of religion toformulate religious behavior of man as far as there also otherdisciplines trying to do the same. He has to master to integrate theresults of another researcher in this field and make hisinterpretation. One is a historian of religion, not because hemasters all religious philosophies, but he integrates religious datainto a general perspective (Eliade, 91). One only understands symbolsafter having studied types and variety of them.

Eliadeuses the study of the cosmic tree to elaborate the understanding ofsymbols. Only after knowing what initial meaning the tree has inMesopotamia will one be able to grasp the different meaning given tothe symbol. Religious facts that human has had a symbolic meaning thereason the man was referred as homo symbolic. (Eliade, 95). It notright to say that religious subject implies the study of religioussymbolism. The term symbol is reserved for religious facts whosesymbolism is manifest and explicit. (Eliade, 95). The symbols inreligion are what human give meaning to in their religion. Eliadepoints that primitive symbols are always religious because they pointto something real or structure of the world. Symbols aim at realityor a situation in which human existence is to engage. (Eliade, 102).Eliade adds that this symbol brings a meaning into human existence.To show the connection between symbols and human existence he usesthe seven planets to relate them to a cosmic tree, horse to thesymbol of death and spade with phallus (104). He adds that thesymbolism would not have existed if man never interacted withagriculture or horse and the discovery of the seven planets. Eliadebase hi study of religion through the approach of symbols andreligious historical facts.

SmithCantwell adds that though people study religion externalities theyshould not be used to define religion for the study of religion isthe study of man, more concentration should be on the study ofreligious man to understand religion as religion is only valid if abeliever can agree with it. But for symbolism or externalities it iseven possible for a scholar to come up with a different meaning thanthat of the believer. He adds that historians should only study thosesymbols that portray the faith of believer only. He adds thatreligions are new every morning. He wishes historian to study onlythose symbols that that man is sympathetic to and that he givesmeaning. He adds that, to study religion effectively we have now tostudy religion in a personalized way and has to be inclusive studyand not an objective study from a distance.

Worldof Text Interpretation Paul Ricoeur

Ricoeuranalyzes interpretation from the perspective of Dilthey as an art ofunderstanding applied to testimonies of which writing is adistinctive characteristic. He adds Dilthey definition ofUnderstanding “is the process that we come to know something ofmental life through perceptible signs that manifest it”(Ricoeur,150). My understanding of this is that how someone comes to know theintention of text that the writer had, is understanding.Interpretation provides the degree of objection in virtue of fixationand preservation upon which writing confers upon signs. Ricouermakes a statement of Dilthey that interpretation is subordinate ofunderstanding though, he deviates from Dilthey reasoning.Hermeneutics aims to understand the author better than he understandshimself (Ricoeur, 151). “For the logic of interpretation thefunction of hermeneutics is to establish theoretically against theintrusion of romantic whim and skeptical subjectivism into the domainof history, the universal validity of interpretation.”( Ricoeur,151) . Understanding thus seeks to concur with the inner life, themental perspective, to reproduce the process that produced the work.Thus, Ricoeur reinstates in psychological terms that interpretationpursues and always aims at the reproduction of lived experiences. Butin the end of this discussion II explanation and understanding hebrings out two questions about interpretation “whether it ispossible to leave or abandon the reference of interpretation tounderstanding and cease to make the interpretation of written text aparticular case of understanding the external signs of `an innermental life ?”(Ricoeur, 151). He adds another question too, of “ifinterpretation does not seek the intelligibility in understandingothers does is a relation with an explanation now need to berevisited?” (Ricoeur, 151).

Intext discourse, interpretation is the concrete outcome ofconjunctions and renewal. Ricoeur uses Schleimer, Bultman and Diltheyto show how interpretation retains the feature of appropriation. Thatis, the interpretation of a text culminates in theself-interpretation of a subject who henceforth understands himself.Ricoeur shows how in interpretation reading becomes (like) speech. Hegoes ahead and brings an articulation between explanation andinterpretation by rendering a structural analysis and hermeneuticscomplimentary. He regards structural analysis as necessary stagebetween critical and naïve interpretation. He sees the possibilityto situate explanation and interpretation along a uniquehermeneutical arc and to integrate the opposed attitudes ofexplanation and understanding within an overall a concept of readingas are recovery of meaning. To explain is to bring out the structurethat is an internal relation of dependence that constitutes thestatic of the text, to interpret is to follow the path of thoughtopened up by the text to place oneself on the route toward the orientof the text (Ricoeur 161).

Hesees the subjective process of interpretation as an act onthe text while for an objective process of interpretation as the actoftext(Ricoeur 161). To show the relationship between interpretation andtradition he uses the story of creation where the story is bothexpressed as a narrative of action and speech. He relates thenarrative of action to tradition and the narrative speech tointerpretation. This relationship is internal to the text, for theexegete to interpret is to place himself in the meaning indicated bythe relation of interpretation that the text itself supports. Readingis the concept in which the destiny of text is fulfilled, it’s thevery act of reading that the explanation and interpretation areopposed and reconciled. Ricoeur finally settles for Aristotleunderstanding of Interpretation “ is not what one does with thesecond language concerning the first, rather it’s what the firstlanguage already does by mediating upon signs, our relation tothings.” ( Ricoeur, 162)

Finally,Recouer acknowledges that open series of interpret-ant that isgrafted onto relation of a sign to an object brings to light atriangle relation of the object, sign and interpret-ant.

Relevanceof World of Text in Religious Studies

Ricouerenables reader to understand the meaning of religious text from boththe perspective of the author, and that the text bears. Taking thereligious text as it is, and interpreting it both in subjective andobjective to gain meaning is what scholars should do. In religiousstudies, text understanding should be used to recreate the originalmental position of the writer and reconcile him with the reader.Ibelieve Ricoeur in the world of text intended that we should alwaysanalyze all the perspectives of text. He uses the Biblical story ofcreation to show two perspectives of narrative of action and speech.He also shows how text relates to each other, he uses the Oediphusmyth to show how text connect to each other bringing out the speechnarrative of the myth. Thus the texts in their simple units expoundthe meaning in structure of religious studies. Hermeneutics aims tounderstand the reader better than he understands himself. Thus, inunderstanding religious studies texts scholars should internalize theauthor’s position and recreate the events that occurred when thewriter wrote text, thus understanding the writer better.AlsoRicoeur points the understanding is triangle objective ofinterpreting text from object itself to sign attributed to the objectand the interpret-ant.

Citedworks

EliadeMircea, “Methodological Remarks on The Study of ReligiousSymbolism” Paul

Ricoeurhermeneutics and the Human Sciences.Ed Joseph Campbell Penguins Books

1976,480-502

FreudSigmund “The future of Illusion”

JamesWilliam. “Religion and Neurology,” Lecture on Varieties ofReligion.

JungCarl G. “Differences Between Eastern and Western Thinking”Portablejung,ed Joseph

CampellPenguin Books 1976, 480-502

RicoeurPaul. “What is a Text Explanation and Understanding,” PaulRicoeur Hermeneutics

andHuman Science.Ed John B Thompson New York: Cambridge University

press1981,145-64

SmithWilfred Cantwell. “Comparative Religion: Wither and Why?” Thehistory of Religious

Essayin Methodology.Ed Mircea Eliade and Joseph Kitagawa Chicago.

Universityof Chicago Press 1959,131-58

Student`s Name

InstitutionAffiliation

Environmentalpollution

Psychology

Asstudies reveal, psychologists have long considered environmentalpollution as the leading factor that leads to conditions such asasthma, respiratory ailments and even stroke and thus presents anissue of concern. According to recent findings, psychologists fromthe school of Medicine at Boston University revealed that long-termexposure to aspects of environmental pollution presents the greatrisk of damaging brain structures while also impairing cognitivefunctioning in individuals (Morris, 2010). To be precise,psychologists state that environmental pollution affects thestructure of the brain and as such may lead to blockage of thevessels supplying the brain with blood. As research reveals,environmental pollution presents the great risk of leading topsychiatric symptoms comprising of anxiety, changes in mood andbehavior as well as cognition. As further revealed, increased levelsof environmental pollution, directly relate to increased psychiatricadmissions alongside emergency calls. Clearly, environmentalpollution affects an individual’s psychological well-being.

Sociology

Asstudies reveal, the environment plays a key role in the study ofsociology and thus it is imperative to have a good understanding onthe same. Considering the aspect of environmental pollution, it issufficiently evident that this arises owing to human activity and assuch, environmental problems present significant impacts on thepeople. Ideally, environmental pollution problems to a considerableextent illustrate and reflect on social inequality with regard tosocial class and even race and ethnicity. Indeed, this is evident inthe fact that considering the many issues affecting the society,people of color and the poor mostly face the challenge ofenvironmental pollution. It is therefore sufficiently evident thatenvironmental pollution affects the communities and individuals whomake up the same. Essentially, this arises because we as individualsare entirely responsible for the problems arising out ofenvironmental pollution (Morris, 2010).

Mentalillness

Psychology

Froma psychological perspective, mental illness relates to a conditionthat abnormally affects how person behaves, thinks, feels and evenrelate to others as well as the surroundings. In light of the same,it is of the essence to state that the various psychological factorsthat lead to the condition of mental illness comprise of genetic,psychological and biological factors. In explaining how geneticsleads to mental illness Morris (2010), a renowned psychologist statesthat mental illness runs in families and therefore may pass on fromthe parents to the children through genes. Considering biology,psychologists argue that mental illness arises because of theabnormal or impaired functioning of the brain circuits connectingdifferent regions of the brain controlling behavior, mood andthinking. As further revealed, psychological trauma arising fromneglect, early loss of a parent and even severe sexual, physical andemotional abuse may also lead to mental illness.

Sociology

Sincemental illness presents an issue of concern, sociology as an area ofstudy aims at investigating the various social factors that lead tothe same. As revealed, the most evident social causes leading tomental illness entail factors relating to disadvantaged socialstatuses alongside stress. Ideally, with regard to the social stressfactors, this perspective holds that the level of one’s mentalillness will ultimately depend on vulnerability and how one bestcopes to the low social support levels comprising of self-esteem. Incontrast to psychological perspectives on the causes of mentalillness, that targets genetics, psychological and biological factors,the sociological perspective holds that mental illness arises owingto the influence of social contexts, statuses, roles andrelationships (Morris, 2010).

Reference

MorrisRosenberg (2010). Social Psychology. Transaction Publishers.

Student`s Name

Presentation:Wilfred Cantwell Smith

BriefBiography

WilfredCantwell Smith, a comparative religionist was born in Toronto in 1916and studied at Toronto University, attained a Bachelor of Arts in thestudy of Oriental Languages in 1939. In 1948, he earned his doctorateat Princeton University he joined the McGill Faculty of Divinity asa professor of comparative religion. Wilfred Cantwell Smith took thisopportunity to pursue his interest and further research Islam, aswell as founded the McGill-Institute of Islamic Studies and thecorresponding library. He has written various key works on religion.He passed away in 2000, in a well lived philosophical.

&quotComparativeReligion: Whither – and Why&quot

Smithopens his argument by pointing out that there are two phases ofcomparative religion history study. The first stage involves theaccumulation, organization and analyzing of religious knowledge fromthe objective point of the observer. It began with the era ofChristendom, when the western scholars started to explore the rest ofthe world, as they moved they collected religious accounts of otherpeoples. The accounts were randomly collected at first as travelertales, but later in the phase there was order collection ofinformation (Smith, 31). This phase concentrated on the study ofreligious externalities. Attention was given to the historyscriptures and not the man himself. In this period, this opinion waswidely held in universities students had to be partial to writeabout any religion, to attain this they had to have no religion.

Thesecond stage does not supersede but transcends the firsts. While inthe first stage there was accumulated of knowledge and perspective onothers the second stage involves the study of comparative religion,which is inclusive of scholar and the believer opinions andconsiderations. Religious scholars are expected to have personalinteraction and relationship with the people they are writing about.Smith considers it professional for his academicians to be directlyinvolved with people under study (Smith, 32). The general perceptionand reading has elevated to a new level. Furthermore, people ofdifferent religions are always interacting today in theirneighborhoods, social and political fronts and this change is forgood.

Thisdemands for personalization of comparative religion study though itwill be difficult as it involves the study of unobservable qualitiesof human being and requires careful scholarship and creativethinking. The significant innovation in this phase has been thepersonalization of the faith observed so that you find a discussionof “them”. The observer becomes a participant such that thesituation is we speak about &quotthey.&quot The next stage isdialogue, where “we” talk to “you” (Smith, 34).

Smithdivides his work into five sections, in the first section he statesthat there is gradual recognition of that, the study of religion isthe study of people and man live by his quality, faith. He adds thatevery region in a fresh day is a new religion, and it lives in man’sheart (Smith, 34). What we are studying is not observable, for we areexploring the ideals, loyalties, ideas and passions of human beings.Externalities are not religion, but the meaning attributed to them byhumans is what makes them religious. Smith states that when scholarrecognizes that he has to deal not with the religious system, butpeople, he is making impressive progress. The fundamental mistake ofhuman has been to take externalities as religion.(Smith, 35).Smithpoints out that Erman an Egyptologist fails in his study because hedefines the externalities as religion (Smith,37).

Thereis another concern that what is written is partly determined by thewriter and also the person being addressed. There is increasedpersonalization in what writers write in comparative religion as aresult of a push from free movement of information and increaseddemand by consumers of other religion studies. Today people arereading the religious material as the basis of interpretation of thepeople they live and interact with (Smith, 40). A situation has comewhere writers take a keen interest in writing religion if they writeabout other religion they should do it in the presence of those theyare writing about. The scholar must do so in a responsible, andrespectful way for religion is no longer a concern for a group but awhole population. Besides, no statement that what a writer will writewill be valid if it cannot be certified by a believer. It is possibleto discover things especially externalities that are unknown to thebeliever, but those concerned with faith an outsider cannot go beyondthe believer, for faith is the portrait of a believer and if a writercannot recognize that, then who is he portraying (Smith, 42).

Itis also possible for a non-believer to write convincingly aboutreligion, but he can never refute a believer on what faith it is. Noone can understand Christianity who does not profess it this is thesame for all religions. The opposite is not true, not all statementthat is acceptable to believers is by itself true (Smith, 43). Thejob of non-Muslim scholars writing about his religion is that oftrying to reconcile the western academic tradition and doing justiceto the men of faith it needs a lot of creativity and as it ischallenging (Smith,44). In this phase, secular have been joined ifnot superseded by Christianity as students of non-Christian religionand other academicians. The Western scholars have also been joined byinvestigators from others nationalities where the secular religiousstudy by the West do not fully elaborate religion. The aspect ofdevelopment is that even the secular rationalist is being viewed asan ordinary academician, not as a god with particular opinion.Secularism may be on the right path and even accurate as it claims,but the general feeling is that it should not be treated as asuperior claim to equate it with long treasured traditions andreligions. This phase has also been coupled with a rise ofexternalists’ philosophers, the increase of communism andresurgence of Western civilization coupled with a decline in WesternEurope world position (Smith 45),

Onreligious base, all have worked together to bring about this newsituation. The secular scholar like religious believer has taken hisplace as a member of one group of men, one of world communitieslooking out upon others. Each writer in this field is beginning to berecognized as a champion of a one tradition in a world of championingothers. Smith elaborates additional aspect of this stage, theemergence or need for dialogue.

Whena personal relationship is created between the writer and what hewrites about, there is a need for dialogue. To talk about people isnot the same as to talk with peoples. The effects of dialogue arebeing felt in comparative religion gradually in universities butperhaps more in churches. Dialogue has been coming more as a resultof the need to talk to members of different religion, Catholicchurches and the Protestant are already in dialogue. It might be thenext step in faith and mission where one group show what God has donefor them, and the other group too does the same, and the truth isanalyzed. If the discussion is sincere, it might be legitimate. Thetwo members of faiths just meet merely to learn how they can livetogether in mutual respect and collaboration (Smith, 47)

Another aspect of this phase is the need for professionalrepresentatives equipped with knowledge at least of two religions. Hewill serve as a mediator or interpreter between the two by helpingthem to interpret between each other. These phases make comparativereligion become more professionally involved, and it is not asurprise if comparative department becomes institutionally so. If acomparatively religionist choose not to be part of the dialogue, hecan hardly fail to take a professional interest in what is going andbeliever when they fail to understand a concept of their religionthey turn to comparative religionists(Smith, 51).

Comparative religionist should make statements that are acceptableand intelligible to those within the dialogue. Since the scholarworks from higher learning institution, the statements produced must,first of all, be meaningful and convincing within that tradition. Ina case where the encounter is between the academic culture of theWest and particular religion, the comparative religionist mustsatisfy each two traditions independently and transcend them both bysatisfying them both simultaneously. Dialogue opens way to a newstage of reconciliation

Nolonger is this study an objective inquiry earned from an outside buta human study carried from within. Face to face dialogue gives sideto side conversation where scholars of different faith no longerconfront each other but collaborate jointly in facing the universeand consider together the problems that are all involved.

Conclusion

Finally,it will be realized that man is studying himself. We all study thefact that our human community is divided within itself religiously.As a practitioner of religion, Smith suggests that, we no longerbecome an observer but a participant. Future historians will lookback on the twentieth century not primarily for its scientificdiscoveries, but as the century when people of all societies cametogether as on big community. Smith acknowledges that, this stage hasnot climaxed in any great work and is so complex such that nothingimportant has clearly been recognized our main challenge is tounderstand this development and to carry it to a successfulconclusion.

Classdiscussion questions

1.As a student of religion is Smith logical in His argument ofcomparative religion today? If yes or no, explain.

2.Do the externalities not themselves define religion and what is manwithout religion and does not man dependent on this externalities todefine religion?

3.How does the second stage of comparative religion compliment thefirst?

CitedWorks

“WilfredCantwell Smith.&quot Essentials of Religion n.pag. Department ofReligious Studies, University of Alabama. Web. 10 Nov 2015.&lthttp://rel.as.ua.edu/aboutrelbiowcsmith.html&gt.