The Mineral Nutrient Accumulation during Seed Development

THE MINERAL NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION DURING SEED DEVELOPMENT 1

TheMineral Nutrient Accumulation during Seed Development

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TheMineral Nutrient Accumulation during Seed Development

Summary

This paper is an article review of “TheMineral Nutrient Accumulation during Seed Development.” Thediscussion is critical on the initial processes of nutrient uptake,accumulation and use.

This criticalarticle review studies the uptake, accumulation and importance ofmineral nutrients in the many growth phases of seed development aswell as the importance of crop growth and yield, and the subsequentfood consumption.

Plantreproductivity and human nutrition serve a basic role in nutrientloading of seeds. The two act as a catalyst to mineral nutrientuptake and the successful development of seeds through all theirsignificant and delicate stages.

The focus of thiswork is to analytically review the accumulation and use of mineralnutrients during seed development and their profound impact on cropyield.

Keywords:

Mineral nutrientuptake, membrane transport, phloem transport, seed growth, seedmineral nutrient content, crop growth.

Seeds are plant organs that entirelydepend on the mineral nutrient loading from the main plant. This ismainly for growth and development towards maturity. The seed numberand seed size are determined by the nutrient importation of seeds(Fenner 2005). Seed number and seed size play a significant role inbiological and agronomics importance if the reproductivity of theseeds is to be analysed as successful. Dispersion of many smallerseeds is a key factor in the spread of seed progeny across allfavourable environments (Fenner 2005).

It is human consumption of food thatfavours the massive production of seeds that serve as a platform forthe development of fully grown plants and better crop yield.

Alow conductive pathway of differentiating phloem cells tend to takethe regulative control role in the early stages of seed development.The vascular phloem system serves the growing seeds (Lucas et al.2013). After the start of mineral nutrient accumulation by seeds,dominance of pathway control opens up to the controlling by-processesfound in sources, phloem pathway and the seed sinks. However, thiswould depend on the specific nutrient species (Lucas et al. 2013).Mineral nutrients combined with water are transported into the primeseed tissues and unloaded from the conducting sieve elements into awidespread post-phloem symplasmic domain.The symplasmic domain releases the nutrients into theseed apoplasm system (Thompson et al. 2001). This is a system ofcomplex processes involving membrane transport mechanisms that is notwell understood. The phloemstructure serves as a through-way for mineral nutrients uptake fromsource tissues to other plant tissues (sink tissues). Moreover, therates of nutrient loading, through the vascular phloem, arecontrolled by the passage and relocation processes found in thesources (leaves, stems, reproductive structures), phloem pathway andseed sinks (Weber et al. 1998).

The seeddevelopmen progresses while there is an increasing supply of phloemwater that is constantly recycled by undiscovered processes. Thenutrient importation of seeds is a dynamic process that is temporaryas well. Primarily, seeds take through three developmental stages(Weber et al. 2005):

  • Cell Division- This stage follows immediately after the seed setting.

  • Cell Expansion- The seed expands to accommodate more and more loaded nutrients.

  • Cell Storage- Most mineral nutrients are packed stored in this phase.

However, all thesedevelopmental stages overlap each other in temporary patterns.Mineral and nutrient loading reaches optimum once the seed reachesmaturity, that is, after attaining its plateau volume size.

Discussion

For the successfulgrowth of plants to maturation, the accumulation of important mineralnutrients is very important. Each specific stage of seed developmentis packed with the specific minerals required at that particularperiod. For instance, minerals loaded during seed ontogeny aremassively accountable for the first stages of seed development.Therefore, the absence of these mineral nutrients would lead to thearrest of seed growth.

Differentparts of seeds have varying levels of mineral amounts (Konishiet al. 1998).As soon as the seedling starts the active growth phase, thatis, elongation, the rise for minerals needs increases profoundly(Corke &amp Roberts 1997).

Conclusion

Roots have thesole responsibility of up taking nutrients. Consequently, plant rootmorphology plays a strategic role in enhancing mineral nutrient uptake. Plants with a wide network of extended roots have a largersurface area to volume ratio that maximizes the chances of highmineral intake and accumulation because they cover a bigger surfaceof soil coverage that has the necessary mineral nutrients fordevelopment. (Lynch 1995).

References

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Fenner M (2005) Seed size and chemical composition: the allocation of

minerals to seeds and their use in early seedling growth. BotanicalJournal of Scotland 56, 163–173.

Konishi, Y., Takezoe, R. and Murase, J. 1998. Energydispersive X-ray microanalysis of element distribution in amaranthseed. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 62: 2288–2290.

Lucas,W. J., Groover, A., Lichtenberger, R., Furuta, K., Yadav, S. R.,Helariutta, Y., … &amp Kachroo, P. (2013). The plant vascularsystem: evolution, development and FunctionsF.&nbspJournalof integrative plant biology,&nbsp55(4),294-388.

Lynch, J. 1995. Root architecture and plant productivity.Plant Nod factor signalling: evidence for a G protein-mediatedtransduction mechanism. Plant Cell 10: 659–672

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Thompson, R.D., Hueros, G., Becker, H. A., &amp Maitz, M. (2001). Developmentand functions of seed transfer cells.&nbspPlantScience,&nbsp160(5),775-783.