TheorecticalFoundations of Organizational Change
TheorecticalFoundations of Organizational Change
Organizationchange is either a gradual or an instant process of transforming intoa future state. Conversely, change management entails the process ofoverseeing the transition of organizations, individuals and teamsaffected by the change in the future status. In some cases, theexecutives introduce strategic changes in an organization and thenmanage them until they become perfect. Conversely, some changes mayhappen due to the external transformation of the businessenvironment. For instance, a new product manufacturing technology mayforce an organization to upgrade to purchase new types of machinerythat will produce higher quality products to match the competitors. The changes may target a variety of things in a business such as themission, purpose, vision and beliefs of an enterprise. Consequently,the theoretical foundations influencing organizational change varydepending on the target factor.
Factorsthat contribute to the organic evolution of change
Overtime, societies evolve and the demand for new products forcesorganizations to adopt new methods of producing goods and services toremain competitive. According to Witt (2004), the enterprises thatwithstand the transformation and even benefit from it are the onesthat accept changes. One of the change models includes the organicevolution. The approach results from external factors of anorganization.
First,competition may influence organic evolution in an organization. Forexample, a business may need to implement a new marketing approachwhen a new competitor enters the market. In the recent past,business has begun using new marketing techniques such as socialmedia platforms since they offer better interaction between anenterprise and the clients than the traditional mass media (Witt,2004).
Secondly,technology advancement can also lead to organic changes inbusinesses. The management needs to train the employees to usecomputers. In many cases, the introduction of new technology inorganizations helps to improve the performance of an organization. As a result, the executives can purposely incorporate the technologyinto a business with the intention of enhancing customer service aswell as efficiency (Witt, 2004).
Thirdly,an enterprise that intends to acquire new production methods toenhance its efficiency and reduce waste undergoes organic change toaccommodate the new requirement. For example, a business that intendsto introduce a new line of product needs to hire new professionalsexperienced in the field. Similarly, an organization may get rid ofthe staff that makes certain merchandise in case it loses its market(Witt, 2004).
Finally,the government implements new standards occasionally. Some of thechanges affect the methods of production, waste management,production and distribution of specific goods and services as well asthe use of certain ingredients make business to undergo changes tomeet the policies (Witt, 2004).
Formulatingstrategic development approaches
Accordingto Sugarman (2001), organization change is fundamental because ithelps enterprises to acquire features that will suit their futuredevelopments better than the present models. Strategic developmentmainly occurs when businesses create incessant self-diagnosisprocess. Kanter, Stein, and Jick (2003) contend that strategicdevelopment in an institution occurs in various stages. First, thebusiness management needs to evaluate an organization as well as thechanges it needs before initializing the changes. For instance, theexecutives need to know whether they need to hire extra labor,introduce new technology or expand a facility to achieve the futuregoals of an organization. Secondly, the management should develop acollective vision among its employees. The entire staff should beeducated about their roles in the impending changes. Third, thechange managers should draw a clear difference between the past andthe future business state. For instance, the employees shouldunderstand whether they would need to acquire new skills to maintaintheir jobs of the company would hire new professionals, who areconversant with the future operations, to replace their jobs or them. Employees can resist changes in case the strategic develop inpreparation threatens to end their careers. Fourthly, the managementshould develop a sense of urgency. The changes should be implementedimmediately so that an organization can benefit from the trendyknowledge or technology before it becomes outdated. Fifthly, themanagement should involve the entire staff, communicate and be honestof the expected outcomes. Preparing the employees for the expectedoutcomes as well as informing them of their expected roles in thechange process reduces the level of resistance. The sixth step informulating strategic development involves institutionalizing andreinforcing the targeted changes (Kanter, Stein, & Jick, 2003).
Identificationof strategic development models
Strategicplanning is unique to each organization. As a result, there is nosingle model that can suit every institution since organizationsselect and modify models to match their distinct realities as well asprogram feedback. The self-organizing or organic model ismechanistic because it is based on cause and effect. The managersintending to use this approach begin conducting an extensiveevaluation of both internal and external environment of a businessusing the SWOT analysis approach.
Thebasic steps for identifying strategic development models includeclarification and articulation of the cultural values of anorganization. The storyboarding and dialogue are the primary methodsused in this process. Secondly, the management needs to communicatethe vision of the group for the organization. Thirdly, regularcommunication regarding the development process is important as ithelps to monitor the vision progress as well as the step the step thegroup will adopt next. Fourthly, the executives behind thedevelopment model should frequently emphasize the values of thecompany. Fifthly, the management should use consensus method toarrive at major decisions (Gilley, McMillan, & Gilley, 2009). Although the method is time-consuming, and the results are oftenirregular or unexpected, it helps to make everyone feel respected anda part of the organization. Lastly, the organic model developmentmodel tends to be an impromptu approach. The management should focuson diagnosis of the business and customizing the model to fit aspecific organization (Strategic Planning Models, n.d).
Evaluationof the leadership and management skills necessary to implement amodel of continuous change that facilitates organizational adaptationand ensures follower commitment
Themanagement needs to identify a team with competent management andleadership knowledge to ensure successful implementation ofcontinuous change. One of the factors that are considered whenevaluating the team includes the ability of an individual toaccomplish assignments such as team preparation on time. On the samenote, the professional should be able to analyze the available factsand data to reach a sound decision. Besides, the best managers tolead organizational adaptation also emphasize the process improvementphilosophy. Subsequently, the best personnel for executing thecontinuous change model keep n open mind that enables them toconsider alternatives that can assist to improve the managementprocess. Finally, it is also essential that the best managementshould follow the basic rules that the team has set precisely(Kanter, Stein, & Jick, 2003).
Accordingto the Leading for continuous improvement innovation insights series10 (2005), an efficient management body that can ensure that thefollowers are committed to the implementation of the continuousdevelopment model should have effective team training skills. Thecapability will help them to develop the talent of the team membersas well as coach new employees to sustain the efficient availabilityof skilled workforce. Secondly, the leaders should review thesolutions proposed by the team and choose the feasiblerecommendations that are suitable for the organization. Finally, themanager should define the available resources as well as theconstraint the implementation team might experience. Furthermore,they should regularly communicate with the team members to eliminateconstraints and barriers that could hinder the team efforts (Leadingfor continuous improvement innovation insights series 10, 2005).
Gatheringand analyzing data to determine the most efficacious timing of change
Accordingto Shea, Jacobs, Esserman, Bruce, and Weiner, (2014), the effort toexecute new policies, programs and practices in a business often failbecause leaders lack adequate preparation for the anticipatedchanges. To establish the most efficient time to implement change,the management should collect information about the expect changes,the benefits and the challenges the affected staff members will faceduring the implementation process. Employees tend to have lessresistance to the change process when they are prepared behaviorallyand psychologically for the change process (Shea et al., 2014).
Datagathering and analyzing in a business occurs at both personal andsupra-individual levels respectively. The latter refers to levelssuch as department, organization or team phases. Weiner (2009)recommends that the collection and analysis of data to establisheffective timing change should occur should be based on situationalfactors, task demands and resource perceptions.An evaluation ofthe staff persistence and their level of cooperation in theimplementation of the business goals help to establish the best timeto implement changes in an organization.
Gilley,A., McMillan, S.H., & Gilley, W.J., (2009). Organizational changeand characteristics of leadership effectiveness. Journalof Leadership & Organizational Studies,16(1),38-47.
Kanter,R. M., Stein, B., & Jick, T. (2003). TheChallenge of organizational change: How companies experience it andleaders guide it (3rded).New York, NY: Free Press.
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Sugarman,B. (2001). Pushand grow theories in change management: Gateways to understandingorganizational learning.Western Ontario, Canada: The Ivey School of Management.
Weiner,B.J., (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change.Implement Sci,4: p. 67.
Witt,U., (2004). Theevolutionary perspective on organizational change and the theory ofthe firm.Jena, Germany: Max-Planck-Institute for Research into EconomicSystems.