Topic Education and social class.

Topic:Education and social class.

Issue:Whether or not students from low-income families should haveequal access to quality education and adequate funding to continuetheir education.

Annotated Bibliography

1-Blackwell,Edith, and Patrice Juliet Pinder. &quotWhat are the MotivationalFactors of First-Generation Minority College Students who Overcometheir Family Histories to Pursue Higher Education?&quot CollegeStudent Journal 48.1 (2014): 45-56. Academic Search Complete.Web. 7 Nov. 2015.

Dr. Patrice Pinder is a STEM educational research specialist and afaculty member at Morgan State University. Blackwell is a supportscientist at the United States Department of Agriculture and she hasalso served at the United States Naval Academy and the University ofMaryland. The two have a wealth of experience in research especiallyin the disenfranchised population. The authors note that the pathwayto college education is not equal for all the youth in the Americansociety. Those form poor backgrounds encounter the challenge whentrying to obtain college education. They conducted study to identifythe motivational factors for first-generation students.

The study found out that first-generation students do not receiveany encouragement from their family members to join a college.However, their inner drive instigates them to pursue collegeeducation. The source will help to explain that many first generationminority students lack the motivation and the mentorship given by theteachers.

The authors share similar sentiments with Lindsey (2010) inobserving that financing college education may not be enough ifchildren lack the motivation to study. The family and the teacherstherefore, form a very instrumental background for the pathway tocollege education.

2-Castleman, Benjamin L, and Lindsay C. Page. &quotThe Not‐so‐LazyDays of summer: Experimental Interventions to Increase College EntryAmong Low‐income HighSchool Graduates.&quot New Directions for Youth Development140 (2013): 77-97. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 Nov. 2015.

Castleman,B. L., &amp Page, L. C. (2013). The not-so-lazy days of summer:Experimental interventions to increase college entry among low-incomehigh school graduates.&nbspNew Directions for Youth Development,(140), 77-97. doi:10.1002/yd.20079

Castleman is a professor of education and public policy at Universityof Virginia and Lindsay is a professor of research methodology at theUniversity of Pittsburgh. The two have a wealth of experience inresearch in policy making in education and this makes their piece ofwork valid.

The authors lay insight on the inequality that exists betweenstudents from low and high-income families in accessing the collegeeducation. Unlike other authors, the two consider the lack ofinformation as a major hindrance to enrollment. Most of the studentsdo not have information on the best colleges and the subsidies thatthe government gives. Therefore, most live in the cocoon that theirparents cannot afford college education and this affects theenrollment levels.

They consider the summer programs that occur just after high schoolas important platforms to inform students of the available chances incolleges. The program can also be instrumental in acquaintingstudents with the subsidies given by the colleges and how to access.

The article uses a similar observation with Harper and Kimberly(2010) who points out that financial subsidy on college fees is notenough to trigger increased enrollment. There should be a certainlevel of motivation that target youths from low income families. Thetwo articles agree that motivation should target the students evenbefore they leave high school.

The article is imperative for the final paper since it providesinformation on additional factors, other than low income, that resultto low enrollments of students in colleges. It is a major referencewhen discussing the role played by the lack of information beforeenrollment to the inequality. Furthermore, it describes interventionmeasures that can help to improve the enrollment of children frompoor backgrounds in colleges. Some of these intervention measuresinclude educating the students on scholarships, grants and otherfinancial sources they can use to pay their college fees.

3-Harper,Shaun R., and Kimberly A. Griffin.&quotOpportunity BeyondAffirmative Action: How Low-Income and Working-Class Black MaleAchievers Access Highly Selective, High-Cost Colleges andUniversities.&quot Harvard Journal of African American PublicPolicy 17 (2010): 43-60. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7Nov. 2015.

Harper,S. R., &amp Griffin, K. A. (2010). Opportunity beyond affirmativeaction: How low-income and working-class black male achievers accesshighly selective, high-cost colleges and universities.&nbspHarvardJournal of African American Public Policy, 17, 43-60. Retrievedhttp://hjaap.org

Shaun oversees the faculty that deals with African American graduateeducation as well as the initiative responsible for preparing thestudents to begin the higher education. On the other hand, Kimberlyis a research associate and assistant professor Pennsylvania StateUniversity.

According to the authors, several black males from poor backgroundrarely enroll for postgraduate studies in eighteen postsecondaryinstitutions where most of the white students register for highereducation. The authors cite incapacity of many black parents to livein regions where property is highly valued as a significant hindrancefor the students to join the prestigious schools.

As a result, the African Americans opt to attend affordable collegesthat are characterized by less experienced teachers and cheaperschools fees that the suburban institutions that most white studentsattend. The study also finds that most of the black graduates mainlycome from affluent families. A big number of students from poorfamilies rarely bother to apply for college education.

The article informs the final paper on the need for efforts beyondaffirmative action to increase college enrollment and retention amongthe youth from low income families. It supports argument introduce byCastleman and Lindsay (2013) that subsidizing college fees is notenough to spur increased enrollments.

The views of the article contrasts with Ward (2007) who claims thatprovision of affordable education can help to eliminate the financialgap between the white majority and the minority population. Instead,the author advocates for improvement of education quality in allAmerican academic institutions to achieve equality.

4- Klein, Donald A. &quotHow Can We Best Measure CollegeSuccess?”.New York Times. 26 Dec. 2012: A 24. ProQuestSearch. Web. 1 Nov. 2015.

Klein is a professor of psychiatry at the University of Columbiaand, therefore, well acquainted with the mental and motivationalissues among the youth. The author looks at the family preference foreducation especially those with low incomes.

According to the article, low-income families tend to chooseaffordable colleges as per their income and not necessarily on thechoice preferred by their children. The few resources result in manychildren lacking the college education. The author shares similarinterest with Castleman and Lindsay (2013) who agree that childrenfrom low-income families may opt for any affordable college, and thisaffects the exploitation of their skills.

The newspaper article informs the final paper on the role played bylow income on the poor choice of colleges and exploitation of skills.It also helps to compare the thoughts and findings of various authorson the issue of inequality in college education. Besides, it alsoemphasizes the impact of racial difference on college educationaccess.

5-Lindsey, Brink. “Culture of Success.” Writing in theDisciplines: A Reader and Rhetoric for

Academic Writers. Eds. Mary Lynch Kennedy and William J.Kennedy. 7th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2012. 453-456. Print.

Lindsey is the Cato Institute’s deputy president in charge fresearch. He served as the director trade policy in the institutebetween 1998 and 2004. He is, therefore, well acquainted withpolicies in the home economy. The author notes that low incoming isholding many young Americans from attaining college level education.Although there are major incentives that reduce the burden on collegefees, there has been low level of enrollment and, consequently,graduation. The difference between the average remuneration collegestudents earn has gone up to 85% when compared with the income of theworks who have only high school education. In 1980, the differencewas about 50%.

The author points out that the black and Hispanic children are themost affected. As of 2003, about 80% of the children who hailed fromhigh income area attained college education. This contrasted withonly 49% of the children from low-income families who came from poorbackgrounds. As the author notes, the problem seems to cut acrossthe ethnic clines and observed that in 2006, 34% of the whiteAmericans youth aged between 25and 29 years had college educationwhile only 19% of the African-American youths in the same age brackethad attained college education.

The reason for this disparity is that college education is expansiveand it does not allow low-income families to support their children.The author shares the same sentiments ward (2007) that increasingcollege financing can attract a large number of students fromlow-income families to a significant level. The article informs thefinal paper on the importance of subsidies on college education onattracting enrollment from students hailing from poor backgrounds.

6-Ward, David. &quotThe College Access Imperative Requires Financialand Information Resources.&quot The Presidency 10.1 (2007):5-6. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 8 Nov. 2015.

The author served as the President of the American Council ofEducation between 2001and 2008. He introduces the subject ofinequality that exists in the access in college education in America.He provides that the issue is not a new topic and that the governmentand college administrators all have information on the persistentproblem.

Ward (2007) asserts that the enrollment gap between the low andhigh-income students has remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Hesingles out Washington as one the systems with policies in place thattargets to close the gap. The author agrees with other educationanalysts, such as Lindsey (2012) that inequality based on income gapis not something that the institutions can ignore any longer.

The source is a primary reference for my paper when discussing theinequality in college enrollments. It will help to point out the waysfinancial differences have led to inequality in education access.Besides, it emphasizes that the minority students are the mostaffected by the income balance. Subsequently, it strengthens thepapers discussion that low income is a major cause of the inequalityamong the minority.