Treatmentof Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’sdisease has no cure, but there are several therapeutic strategiesthat are often used to control systems. Medications (such ascarbidopa-levodopa, dopamine agonists, carbidopa-levodopa infusion,and MAO-B inhibitors) are prescribed to manage patient’s tremor,movement, and walking problems (Mayo Clinic 1). These categories ofmedication function by increases levels of substitute dopamine, whichis a specific neurotransmitter in the brain. Since dopamine cannot beadministered directly into the brain, the drugs are administered indifferent form and convert into the dopamine when they reach thebrain, of function by preventing the breakdown of the little dopamineavailable in the brain. These drugs have numerous side effects. Forexample, carbidopa-levodopa causes nausea dopamine agonists lead tohallucinations, compulsive behaviors, sleepiness, hyper-sexuality,and eating MAO-B inhibitors are known to cause hallucinations.
Asurgical procedure may be recommended in serious cases of Parkinson’sdiseases. The common type of surgery is referred to as deep brainstimulation and it involves implantation of electrodes into thepatient’s brain (Mayo Clinic 1). Electrodes are then connected to agenerator that is placed on the patient’s chest or collarbone. Thisprocedure functions by producing a pulse that is sent to the brain,which in turn reduces the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Thesurgery is more effecting in controlling fluctuating and erraticresponses to levodopa as well as dyskinesias that are difficult tocontrol with medication. However, the surgical procedure does notaddress symptoms that fail to respond to levodopa treatment (MayoClinic 1). The surgery provides sustainable benefits to patients, butit fails to contain the progression of the disease. Deep brainstimulation is associated with a high risk of infection.
Achange of lifestyle may help in reducing some symptoms. For example,eating food rich in fiber reduces constipation while food rich inomega-3 fatty acids enhances the brain condition of the patient (MayoClinic 1). Physical exercise or physiotherapy enhances the strengthof muscles and reduces stress and anxiety that are common amongpatients with Parkinson’s disease. In addition, careful walkingtechniques (such as a fair distribution of the body weight on thefoot) prevent regular falls.
Occupationaltherapy plays a critical role in helping the patient learn how to dosome activities of daily living on their one and reduce the negativeimpact of the symptoms. For an instant an occupational therapist mayhelp the patient learn how to dress themselves, bath, and eat ontheir own.
Languageand speech therapy is offered to patients with difficulties inspeaking and swallowing. A language therapist equips the patient withspecial skills that help them learn how to speak and swallow withminimum difficulties (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines 8).
Thefuture treatment procedures will focus on gene therapy. Researchersare investigating the possibility of preventing the death of nervecells and promoting regeneration of cell through gene therapy, whichwill reduce the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (Parkinson’s UK1). The use of gene therapy is expected to reduce the side effectsthat patient expedience when undergoing medication. Other researchersare investing their resources and efforts in stem cell research,which involves the development of various types of cells through theprocess of differentiation (Hauser 1). This will help scientistsrepair or replace damaged cells, especially those that producedopamine.
Inconclusion, Parkinson’s disease is incurable, but its symptoms canbe controlled. Treatment involves medication, surgery, change oflifestyle, occupational or language therapy.
Hauser,A. Parkinson’s disease treatment and management. WebMD.2014. Web. 14 November 2015.
MayoClinic. Parkinson’s disease: Treatments and drugs. MayoClinic.2015. Web. 14 November 2015.
Parkinson’sUK. Future treatment. Parkinson’sUK.2015. Web. 14 November 2015.
ScottishIntercollegiate Guidelines. Diagnosisand pharmacological management of Parkinson’s disease.Edinburgh: Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline, 2010. Print.