United States’ International Involvement after Spanish-American War

UnitedStates’ International Involvement after Spanish-AmericanWar

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UnitedStates’ International Involvement after the Spanish-AmericanWar

Fromthe period of the Spanish-American War until the beginning of thecold war the United States went from relative isolation to increasedinternational involvements because of 1 Jay’s opendoor policy,2 acquiring territories, 3 frontier expansion, 4 economic,territorial, industrial and population growth,and 5 Americans response to World War 1. The consequences on Americansociety of that greater involvement were 6 emergence of war withother countries, 7 growths in the economy, and 8 the growth ofgovernment responsibilities.

Fromthe period of the Spanish-American War until the beginning of thecold war the United States went from relative isolation to increasedinternational involvements because of the opendoor policy. The Open Door policy was proclaimed by John Hay1.The policy was to make the Chinese to be open to the internationalrelations. Partially the policy would enhance the protection of Chinaagainst absorption by the United States from the European countries.China was rich in resources and the United States needed a portion toexpand their trading affairs. Britain had pursued China for manyyears about trading interest. The Coercion of China by the Britainhad led to resistance. However, after a long period of requesting totrade with China with no avail, the British decided to fight theirway through. However, the China military managed to resist. Since theEuropeans were more industrialized, the Chinese would not match theirmilitary power during the Opium War. They eventually signed aninequality treaty of Beijing. The treaty was a doorway to absorptionof China by the Great Britain2.United States introduced the open door policy stating that the rightsof all trading countries should be honored without discrimination.The policy made Chinese to be open to the international relations.Itwas to the benefit of United States and other foreign nationsinterested in trading with the Chinese3.

Fromthe period of the Spanish-American War until the beginning of thecold war the United States went from relative isolation to increasedinternational involvements because of expandingterritories became a policy of the United States. When the Americanswon the war against the Spanish people, the United States acquiredCuba and the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico4.Cuba was a great investment in terms of growing sugar cane that was agreat economy booster. The oversea territory together with theIslands of Guam and Puerto Rico connected the Americans with the EastAsia. For many years East Asia was a target market for the Americans.On accessing the international market, they managed to compete withother industrialized continents. McKinleyalso authorized the annexation of the Philippines5.

Fromthe period of the Spanish-American War until the beginning of thecold war the United States went from relative isolation to increasedinternational involvements because of the competition with theEuropeans for the foreign markets. This competition increased theAmericans awareness of World affairs. As a result, there was a greatdesire to acquire colonies that would improve the touch of moreexternal world markets. Out of excitement and competition with theEuropeans, the United States developed an increased desire foroverseas territories. They ended up harnessing Hawaii6.TheHawaii Island was a baseline to access East Asia. Therefore, forUnited States to acquire Hawaiian Island it was a great success andalso intentional. To acquire the territory, McKinley ordered thetariffs to be levied on the sugarcane growers in Hawaii7.When these growers complained they were given a condition ofharnessing the territory if they sugarcane was to be imported withouttariffs. As a result, the merchants harnessed the territory.

Fromthe period of the Spanish-American War until the beginning of thecold war the United States went from relative isolation to increasedinternational involvements because of Economic, territorial,industrial and population growth also. Their emergence was steered bythe end of the progressive era. The capitalistic nation was nowdeveloping economically8.There was an increase in the number of the bourgeoisie. The emergingmerchants embarked on foreign trade. The economy of the nationgradually stabilized. As a result, there was extensive trading andinvestment in other foreign countries. Particular interest focused onEast Asia. They extended their coercion of international relations toJapan and China among others. The economic prosperity of the UnitedStates also changes its role in the world. There was general nationalsecurity. As a result America became influential. Nations borrowedmoney from the United States that was refunded with interest. Itseconomic prosperity made it the World Bank9.

Fromthe period of the Spanish-American War until the beginning of thecold war the United States went from relative isolation to increasedinternational involvements because of exploration. Frontier expansioncreated space for the explorers, pioneers and settlers. The idea offrontier expansion originated from Frederick Jackson Turner during aspeech in 189310.In his speech he highlighted the need of accommodating moreforeigners. They were to boost the economy of the United Statesthrough the exploitation of resources. He claimed that it was themeeting point of the savagery and civilization. The foreigners werecarriers of a rich culture that would be borrowed. Learning from themwould enhance rapid Americanization. The speech had a great impact tothe administration and geographical frontier segments. As a result,the frontier was expanded and people acquired individual democracy.Americans also allowed foreigners in the United States11.

Theconsequence on the American society of that greater involvement wasemergence of wars with other nations. Annexationof Philippine was a great mistake. In 1899 Philippines rose inguerrilla war under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo against theUnited States. It was the beginning of a three year war12.The war cost around 4000 lives as well as siphoning the economy asthere was a need for supply of armaments and food to the people inthe war. During the war, the military used approximately 86000 tanks,15 million rifles and machine guns, 40 billion bullets, 4 milliontons of artillery shells, 64000 landing crafts, 6500 ships and a verylarge army13.

Theconsequence on the American society of that greater involvement waseconomicalgrowth. They had access to international markets for their goods andservices. The adoption of capitalism steered individuals intoinvestments and hard work. There was an increase in the number of theupper middle class. The emerging merchants embarked on foreign trade.The economy of the nation was gradually stabilizing. Extensivetrading and investment in other foreign countries increased theexport rewards. The living standards of people improved and peoplecould afford basic needs. Those who could not invest in their ownfirms worked for the merchants.

Therewere increased job opportunities and unemployment decreased to 3-4%14.The United States could also afford to give loans to other nations.

Theconsequence on American society of that greater involvement was anexpansionof the government and increased responsibilities. Americans gotinvolved in war activities that steered the sleeping giant to be partof the 2ndworld war in later period. The United States had already annexed toother territories. It was also their responsibility to keep peacebetween them and the territories they had acquired. A good example issetting free the territories that wanted independence like Cuba. Theyallowed them to be independent, but retained their trade interestwithout interfering with their political system. The election ofMcKinley also led to growth of the government. Initially thegovernment leaders were less exposed to the world affairs15.

Unlikeothers, McKinley managed to steer political and economic developmentof the Americans. Therefore, the government took the responsibilityof enhancing foreign trade. It was as a result of this responsibilitythat McKinley authorized the annexation of Philippine and Hawaii16.In addition, Americans interaction with other nations made themborrow various ideas17.And increased knowledge stimulated the urge to come up with newweapons for future use. For instance, the government improved inweaponry as the weapons were later of essential use in the SecondWorld War18.The Americans also came up with new clothes and hair styles. The newgoods and services were advertised in order to acquire markets.

Anothersource of government responsibilities was an increase in the numberof immigrants. Since the extension of the frontier there were a largenumber of foreigners in the United States. However, after the FirstWorld War,immigrants were severely restricted19. The restriction focused on the Chinese labourers and other Asiansexcept the Japanese and the Philippines, criminals, people who failedto meet certain moral standards, people with communicable diseases,paupers, radicals and the illiterates. The reasons for therestriction were: fear over competition for jobs, foreignradicalisation of business, religious anti-Catholicism and racism.There was need for the restriction as the United States’ populationwas rapidly growing. They did not also to create a situation wherethe natural resources were strained to sustain the population20.

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