Urbanization or Community Action

URBANIZATION OR COMMUNITY ACTION 1

As much as urbanization is a blessing poor and unplanned urbanizationhas so many challenges to the community. Apart from pollution thereare other challenges of unplanned urbanization that leads to thereduction in the quality of life. It is important for communityaction to be taken when urbanization it to take place. This paperanalyzes the perspective of various authors on urbanization andcommunity action. The paper brings out their argument on the bestapproach toward urbanization and what the community can do to ensurethat urbanization still takes place but within the means that it onlyfoster development in the society. If the right measures can betaken, it is possible to achieve development in a wholesome mannerthrough urbanization. The contrary happens when people rush todevelop the urban centers without consultation and proper planning.

Hooghe,M., &ampBotterman, S. (2011). Urbanization, community size, andpopulation density: Is there a rural-urban divide in participation involuntary organizations or social network formation?. Nonprofit andVoluntary Sector Quarterly, 0899764011398297.

Mark Hooghe is a professor of political science at the University ofLeuven (Belgium). He has an advanced Research Grant of the EuropeanCouncil to investigate the linkage between the citizen and thepolitical systems in European democracies. His recent work appearedin the British journal of political science and comparative politicalstudies among others.

The author uses a survey as the method of data collection. The surveyincludes about 2080 participants that are randomly selected basing onthe various sampling methods. In addition to the survey the otherstudies other finding from other literature and makes a comparisonwith the current survey.

The author finds that participation in a voluntary association iswidely spread across the entire population. The survey showed that 58percent to the respondents participated in such associations and wereactive members. The survey shows that the participation is affectedby church participation and the education levels. The research alsofinds that the participation level in such group is not affected bythe population density. The paper was trying to investigate whetherthe size of the community and indicators of urbanization has anegative impact on voluntary participation. The result did notsupport this perspective.

The paper provides a good analysis of the case study. It provides awide understanding of urbanization. Nevertheless, the method used tocollect data is quite tedious, and it would be good to work with asmaller population. Such a large population of study often reducesthe validity of the research. If the research uses such a populationsample, then it requires a lot of time and also a large number ofanalysts. Besides, restricting the research by using a singlemethodology subjects it to a lot of prejudices. It is good to use acombination of more than one methodology.

Kacyira,AisaKirabo. `Addressing The Sustainable Urbanization Challenge.`Unchronicle.un.org. N.p., 2015. Web. 31 Oct. 2015.

The author is the deputy director and assistant secretary generalUN-Habitat.

The author gathers much of his information from a personal experiencehe has had with the society. His perspective is developed by issuesthat happen in the society that he has observed for some years.

He finds that much of the developments of the urban centers areleading to environmental degradation. Many of the problems incurredin the environment result from poor planning and policies. He arguesthat the development and the establishment of towns should beaddressed in a ways that can reduce the impact on the environment.Cities that have good plans and infrastructure reduce the cost ofenergy provision, transport and others services needed.

The research is based on personal opinions and less on scientificresearch, the information provided is still helpful in understandingthe challenges of urbanization. The use of scientific method togather information could have helped to develop more understating inthe case study.

McKenzie,K. (2008). Urbanization, social capital and mental health. GlobalSocial Policy, 8(3), 359-377.

Dr. Kwame McKenzie is the CEO of the Wellesley Foundation Institute.He is equally a global expert on the causes of psychological illness,suicide as well as the development of equitable health. For more thantwo decades, Dr. McKenzie has worked to discover the causes ofpsychological illness across the cross-cultural health.

The author takes some books, studies them and uses them to develophis ideas. Apart from the books he also uses research from otherauthors to develop his argument.

The author asserts that globalization has led to rapid urbanization.Nevertheless, the increase in urbanization has led to other socialproblems such as mental illness. The author argues that urbanizationcomes with various aspect of social capital. These aspects are theones that influence the increase in mental illness. The author arguesthat there is various aspects of social capital that are associatedwith mental health.

The paper offers a wealth of data on the effects of urbanization. Itis clear that while urbanization may lead to development there arestill other challenges that come with it. The methodology used tocollect the data is good though there is a need to do a personalstudy of the case study. Using other people’s research might meanthat the information is not first hand. It could be better for theauthor to add a personal research on the issue.

Smit,W., Hancock, T., Kumaresen, J., Santos-Burgoa, C., Meneses, R. S. K.,&ampFriel, S. (2011). Toward a research and action agenda on urbanplanning/design and health equity in cities in low and middle-incomecountries. Journal of Urban Health, 88(5), 875-885.

Dr. Trevor Hancock is a public health physician and health promotionconsultant. Currently, he is a professor and a senior scholar at thenew school of public health and social policy at the University ofVictoria. He has spent the previous 30 years working as a consultantfor provincial and national governments, municipals healthcareorganizations and NGO’s. He mainly works in areas of healthpromotion, healthy cities and communities’ healthy public policyand the environment.

The author reviews literature from previous writers. He reads somebooks then presents his argument from them. His argument is based onsecondary sources of information, since he does not carry out anyresearch but bases his analysis on the available literature

The author finds that there is a strong relationship between urbanplanning/design, the built environment-physical inactivity and healthoutcomes for the residents. The author also argues that many urbansystems have had little or no concern for the food systems. Apartfrom the food system the challenge of clean air has eluded almost allthe urban planning and design. These problems can be dealt with wellif the urban planning follows four major ways. First, there is a needto create the neighborhood that facilitates defensible space, layingout streets and pedestrian/cycling areas promoting mental health andcreating a resilient urban environment.

The author presents a sound argument and solutions to the problemsfacing the city. He can show the challenges facing the city and waysto deal effectively with the problem. Nevertheless, the researchmethodology used is what I would enhance in this research. The authoronly relied on studies done other people, and this might have somebiases. Such a study could have relied on already published findings,but also use a survey to develop a deeper understating of the casestudy.

Senese,L. C., &amp Wilson, K. (2013). Aboriginal urbanization and rights inCanada: Examining implications for health. Social Science &ampMedicine, 91, 219-228.

Laura C senesce works in the Department of Geography &ampprogramming in planning at the University of Toronto. Kathi Wilsonworks in the Department of Geography at the University of TorontoMississauga Canada.

The authors use qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews thatwere conducted with Aboriginal people living in Toronto OntarioCanada. The researcher was keen to ensure that ethical considerationswere followed. The ethical approvals were granted by the UniversityOf Toronto Office Of Research Ethics. Also, other data collectionsare used to supplement the findings. The research relied on somefinding from available literature on the issue to develop the conceptof the study.

The author discovered that there was a lack of aboriginal awarenessamong non-aboriginal people in Toronto. Despite the lack of knowledgemany participants had a positive perspective of the Aboriginalcommunity in Toronto. As well, participants found it difficult toexplain connections between their experience with aboriginal rightsand their health. Many participants could not find the link betterthe two aspects.

The author shows how the disregard for aboriginal rights is floutedin the development of the urban centers. Though the paper providesgood analysis and links to understand the relationship between theseaspects, the methodology used has some faults that should becorrected in future. The method used to arrive at the sample is notexplained, and this might reduce the validity of the study. It isexpected that a research has the sample that represent the entirepopulation. Apart from using interview some other researchmethodology should have been used to complement the failures of usinginterviews. If I were to do this research, I would accompany theinterview with the literature review of previous studies. I wouldalso use a large sample.

Ideally these sources provide a lot of information in understandingurbanization and its challenges. While some of the sources only focuson the cause of the challenges, some also provide a solution theproblems mentioned. It is clear that urbanization has many advantagesand an equal measure of challenges. The involvement of the communityin the development of these urban centers is one approach that canlead to the reduction of these problems if the community does notunderstand their roles in the reduction of the effects ofurbanization then it is hard to deal with the challenges that arise.The involvement of the community in seeking for the solution to theproblems is what is referred to as community action.

References

Hooghe,M., &ampBotterman, S. (2011). Urbanization, community size, andpopulation density: Is there a rural-urban divide in participationin voluntary organizations or social network formation?.Nonprofitand Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 0899764011398297.

Kacyira,AisaKirabo. `Addressing The Sustainable UrbanizationChallenge`. Unchronicle.un.org. N.p., 2015. Web. 31 Oct.2015.

McKenzie,K. (2008). Urbanization, social capital and mental health.GlobalSocial Policy, 8(3), 359-377.

Senese,L. C., &amp Wilson, K. (2013). Aboriginal urbanization and rights inCanada: Examining implications for health. Social Science &ampMedicine, 91, 219-228.

Smit,W., Hancock, T., Kumaresen, J., Santos-Burgoa, C., Meneses, R. S. K.,&ampFriel, S. (2011). Toward a research and action agenda on urbanplanning/design and health equity in cities in low and middle-incomecountries.Journal of Urban Health, 88(5), 875-885.